Security and Usability

book cover
Security and Usability
By Lorrie Faith Cranor, Simson Garfinkel
Publisher: O'Reilly
Pub Date: August 2005
ISBN: 0-596-00827-9
Pages: 738

Table of Contents  | Index

Human factors and usability issues have traditionally played a limited role in security research and secure systems development. Security experts have largely ignored usability issues--both because they often failed to recognize the importance of human factors and because they lacked the expertise to address them.

But there is a growing recognition that today's security problems can be solved only by addressing issues of usability and human factors. Increasingly, well-publicized security breaches are attributed to human errors that might have been prevented through more usable software. Indeed, the world's future cyber-security depends upon the deployment of security technology that can be broadly used by untrained computer users.

Still, many people believe there is an inherent tradeoff between computer security and usability. It's true that a computer without passwords is usable, but not very secure. A computer that makes you authenticate every five minutes with a password and a fresh drop of blood might be very secure, but nobody would use it. Clearly, people need computers, and if they can't use one that's secure, they'll use one that isn't. Unfortunately, unsecured systems aren't usable for long, either. They get hacked, compromised, and otherwise rendered useless.

There is increasing agreement that we need to design secure systems that people can actually use, but less agreement about how to reach this goal. Security & Usability is the first book-length work describing the current state of the art in this emerging field. Edited by security experts Dr. Lorrie Faith Cranor and Dr. Simson Garfinkel, and authored by cutting-edge security and human-computer
interaction (HCI) researchers world-wide, this volume is expected to become both a classic reference and an inspiration for future research.

Security & Usability groups 34 essays into six parts:

  • Realigning Usability and Security---with careful attention to user-centered design principles, security and usability can be synergistic.

  • Authentication Mechanisms-- techniques for identifying and authenticating computer users.

  • Secure Systems--how system software can deliver or destroy a secure user experience.

  • Privacy and Anonymity Systems--methods for allowing people to control the release of personal information.

  • Commercializing Usability: The Vendor Perspective--specific experiences of security and software vendors (e.g.,
    IBM, Microsoft, Lotus, Firefox, and Zone Labs) in addressing usability.

  • The Classics--groundbreaking papers that sparked the field of security and usability.

This book is expected to start an avalanche of discussion, new ideas, and further advances in this important field.

book cover
Security and Usability
By Lorrie Faith Cranor, Simson Garfinkel
Publisher: O'Reilly
Pub Date: August 2005
ISBN: 0-596-00827-9
Pages: 738

Table of Contents  | Index

      Goals of This Book
      Audience for This Book
      Structure of This Book
      Conventions Used in This Book
      Safari Enabled
      How to Contact Us
    Part I:  Realigning Usability and Security
          Chapter One.  Psychological Acceptability Revisited
      Section 1.1.  Passwords
      Section 1.2.  Patching
      Section 1.3.  Configuration
      Section 1.4.  Conclusion
      Section 1.5.  About the Author
          Chapter Two.  Why Do We Need It? How Do We Get It?
      Section 2.1.  Introduction
      Section 2.2.  Product: Human Factors, Policies, and Security Mechanisms
      Section 2.3.  Process: Applying Human Factors Knowledge and User-Centered Approaches to Security Design
      Section 2.4.  Panorama: Understanding the Importance of the Environment
      Section 2.5.  Conclusion
      Section 2.6.  About the Authors
          Chapter Three.  Design for Usability
      Section 3.1.  Death by Security
      Section 3.2.  Balance Security and Usability
      Section 3.3.  Balance Privacy and Security
      Section 3.4.  Build a Secure Internet
      Section 3.5.  Conclusion
      Section 3.6.  About the Author
          Chapter Four.  Usability Design and Evaluation for Privacy and Security Solutions
      Section 4.1.  Usability in the Software and Hardware Life Cycle
      Section 4.2.  Case Study: Usability Involvement in a Security Application
      Section 4.3.  Case Study: Usability Involvement in the Development of a Privacy Policy Management Tool
      Section 4.4.  Conclusion
      Section 4.5.  About the Authors
          Chapter Five.  Designing Systems That People Will Trust
      Section 5.1.  Introduction
      Section 5.2.  The Trust-Risk Relationship
      Section 5.3.  The Time-Course of Trust
      Section 5.4.  Models of Trust
      Section 5.5.  Trust Designs
      Section 5.6.  Future Research Directions
      Section 5.7.  About the Authors
    Part II:  Authentication Mechanisms
          Chapter Six.  Evaluating Authentication Mechanisms
      Section 6.1.  Authentication
      Section 6.2.  Authentication Mechanisms
      Section 6.3.  Quality Criteria
      Section 6.4.  Environmental Considerations
      Section 6.5.  Choosing a Mechanism
      Section 6.6.  Conclusion
      Section 6.7.  About the Author
          Chapter Seven.  The Memorability and Security of Passwords
      Section 7.1.  Introduction
      Section 7.2.  Existing Advice on Password Selection
      Section 7.3.  Experimental Study
      Section 7.4.  Method
      Section 7.5.  Results
      Section 7.6.  Discussion
      Section 7.7.  Acknowledgments
      Section 7.8.  About the Authors
          Chapter Eight.  Designing Authentication Systems with Challenge Questions
      Section 8.1.  Challenge Questions as a Form of Authentication
      Section 8.2.  Criteria for Building and Evaluating a Challenge Question System
      Section 8.3.  Types of Questions and Answers
      Section 8.4.  Designing a Challenge Question Authentication System
      Section 8.5.  Some Examples of Current Practice
          Chapter Nine.  Graphical Passwords
      Section 9.1.  Introduction
      Section 9.2.  A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words
      Section 9.3.  Picture Perfect?
      Section 9.4.  Let's Face It
      Section 9.5.  About the Authors
          Chapter Ten.  Usable Biometrics
      Section 10.1.  Introduction
      Section 10.2.  Where Are Biometrics Used?
      Section 10.3.  Biometrics and Public Technology: The ATM Example
      Section 10.4.  Evaluating Biometrics
      Section 10.5.  Incorporating User Factors into Testing
      Section 10.6.  Conclusion
      Section 10.7.  About the Author
          Chapter Eleven.  Identifying Users from Their Typing Patterns
      Section 11.1.  Typing Pattern Biometrics
      Section 11.2.  Applications
      Section 11.3.  Overview of Previous Research
      Section 11.4.  Evaluating Previous Research
      Section 11.5.  Privacy and Security Issues
      Section 11.6.  Conclusion
      Section 11.7.  About the Authors
          Chapter Twelve.  The Usability of Security Devices
      Section 12.1.  Introduction
      Section 12.2.  Overview of Security Devices
      Section 12.3.  Usability Testing of Security Devices
      Section 12.4.  A Usability Study of Cryptographic Smart Cards
      Section 12.5.  Recommendations and Open Research Questions
      Section 12.6.  Conclusion
      Section 12.7.  Acknowledgments
      Section 12.8.  About the Authors
    Part III:  Secure Systems
          Chapter Thirteen.  Guidelines and Strategies for Secure Interaction Design
      Section 13.1.  Introduction
      Section 13.2.  Design Guidelines
      Section 13.3.  Design Strategies
      Section 13.4.  Conclusion
      Section 13.5.  Acknowledgments
      Section 13.6.  About the Author
          Chapter Fourteen.  Fighting Phishing at the User Interface
      Section 14.1.  Introduction
      Section 14.2.  Attack Techniques
      Section 14.3.  Defenses
      Section 14.4.  Looking Ahead
      Section 14.5.  About the Authors
          Chapter Fifteen.  Sanitization and Usability
      Section 15.1.  Introduction
      Section 15.2.  The Remembrance of Data Passed Study
      Section 15.3.  Related Work: Sanitization Standards, Software, and Practices
      Section 15.4.  Moving Forward: A Plan for Clean Computing
      Section 15.5.  Acknowledgments
      Section 15.6.  About the Author
          Chapter Sixteen.  Making the Impossible Easy: Usable PKI
      Section 16.1.  Public Key Infrastructures
      Section 16.2.  Problems with Public Key Infrastructures
      Section 16.3.  Making PKI Usable
      Section 16.4.  About the Authors
          Chapter Seventeen.  Simple Desktop Security with Chameleon
      Section 17.1.  Introduction
      Section 17.2.  Chameleon User Interface
      Section 17.3.  Chameleon Interface Development
      Section 17.4.  Chameleon Implementation
      Section 17.5.  Conclusion
      Section 17.6.  Acknowledgments
      Section 17.7.  About the Authors
          Chapter Eighteen.  Security Administration Tools and Practices
      Section 18.1.  Introduction
      Section 18.2.  Attacks, Detection, and Prevention
      Section 18.3.  Security Administrators
      Section 18.4.  Security Administration: Cases from the Field
      Section 18.5.  Conclusion
      Section 18.6.  Acknowledgments
      Section 18.7.  About the Authors
    Part IV:  Privacy and Anonymity Systems
          Chapter Ninteen.  Privacy Issues and Human-Computer Interaction
      Section 19.1.  Introduction
      Section 19.2.  Privacy and HCI
      Section 19.3.  Relevant HCI Research Streams
      Section 19.4.  Conclusion
      Section 19.5.  About the Authors
          Chapter Twenty.  A User-Centric Privacy Space Framework
      Section 20.1.  Introduction
      Section 20.2.  Security and Privacy Frameworks
      Section 20.3.  Researching the Privacy Space
      Section 20.4.  Privacy as a Process
      Section 20.5.  Conclusion
      Section 20.6.  About the Author
          Chapter Twenty One.  Five Pitfalls in the Design for Privacy
      Section 21.1.  Introduction
      Section 21.2.  Faces: (Mis)Managing Ubicomp Privacy
      Section 21.3.  Five Pitfalls to Heed When Designing for Privacy
      Section 21.4.  Discussion
      Section 21.5.  Conclusion
      Section 21.6.  Acknowledgments
      Section 21.7.  About the Authors
          Chapter Twenty Two.  Privacy Policies and Privacy Preferences
      Section 22.1.  Introduction
      Section 22.2.  The Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P)
      Section 22.3.  Privacy Bird Design
      Section 22.4.  Privacy Bird Evaluation
      Section 22.5.  Beyond the Browser
      Section 22.6.  About the Author
          Chapter Twenty Three.  Privacy Analysis for the Casual User with Bugnosis
      Section 23.1.  Introduction
      Section 23.2.  The Audience for Bugnosis
      Section 23.3.  Cookies, Web Bugs, and User Tracking
      Section 23.4.  The Graphic Identity
      Section 23.5.  Making It Simple Is Complicated
      Section 23.6.  Looking Ahead
      Section 23.7.  Acknowledgments
      Section 23.8.  About the Author
          Chapter Twenty Four.  Informed Consent by Design
      Section 24.1.  Introduction
      Section 24.2.  A Model of Informed Consent for Information Systems
      Section 24.3.  Possibilities and Limitations for Informed Consent: Redesigning Cookie Handling in a Web Browser
      Section 24.4.  Informing Through Interaction Design: What Users Understand About Secure Connections Through Their Web Browsing
      Section 24.5.  The Scope of Informed Consent: Questions Motivated by Gmail
      Section 24.6.  Acknowledgments
      Section 24.7.  About the Authors
          Chapter Twenty Five.  Social Approaches to End-User Privacy Management
      Section 25.1.  A Concrete Privacy Problem
      Section 25.2.  Acumen: A Solution Using Social Processes
      Section 25.3.  Supporting Privacy Management Activities with Social Processes
      Section 25.4.  Deployment, Adoption, and Evaluation
      Section 25.5.  Gaming and Anti-gaming
      Section 25.6.  Generalizing Our Approach
      Section 25.7.  Conclusion
      Section 25.8.  About the Authors
          Chapter Twenty Six.  Anonymity Loves Company: Usability and the Network Effect
      Section 26.1.  Usability for Others Impacts Your Security
      Section 26.2.  Usability Is Even More Important for Privacy
      Section 26.3.  Bootstrapping, Confidence, and Reputability
      Section 26.4.  Technical Challenges to Guessing the Number of Users in a Network
      Section 26.5.  Conclusion
      Section 26.6.  About the Authors
    Part V:  Commercializing Usability: The Vendor Perspective
          Chapter Twenty Seven.  ZoneAlarm: Creating Usable Security Products for Consumers
      Section 27.1.  About ZoneAlarm
      Section 27.2.  Design Principles
      Section 27.3.  Efficient Production for a Fast Market
      Section 27.4.  Conclusion
      Section 27.5.  About the Author
          Chapter Twenty Eight.  Firefox and the Worry-Free Web
      Section 28.1.  Usability and Security: Bridging the Gap
      Section 28.2.  The Five Golden Rules
      Section 28.3.  Conclusion
      Section 28.4.  About the Author
          Chapter Twenty Nine.  Users and Trust: A Microsoft Case Study
      Section 29.1.  Users and Trust
      Section 29.2.  Consent Dialogs
      Section 29.3.  Windows XP Service Pack 2A Case Study
      Section 29.4.  Pop-Up Blocking
      Section 29.5.  The Ideal
      Section 29.6.  Conclusion
      Section 29.7.  About the Author
          Chapter Thirty.  IBM Lotus Notes/Domino: Embedding Security in Collaborative Applications
      Section 30.1.  Usable Secure Collaboration
      Section 30.2.  Embedding and Simplifying Public Key Security
      Section 30.3.  Designing Security Displays
      Section 30.4.  User Control of Active Content Security
      Section 30.5.  Conclusion
      Section 30.6.  About the Author
          Chapter Thirty One.  Achieving Usable Security in Groove Virtual Office
      Section 31.1.  About Groove Virtual Office
      Section 31.2.  Groove Virtual Office Design
      Section 31.3.  Administrators' Strengths and Weaknesses
      Section 31.4.  Security and Usability
      Section 31.5.  About the Authors
    Part VI:  The Classics
          Chapter Thirty Two.  Users Are Not the Enemy
      Section 32.1.  The Study
      Section 32.2.  Users Lack Security Knowledge
      Section 32.3.  Security Needs User-Centered Design
      Section 32.4.  Motivating Users
      Section 32.5.  Users and Password Behavior
      Section 32.6.  About the Authors
          Chapter Thirty Three.  Usability and Privacy: A Study of KaZaA P2P File Sharing
      Section 33.1.  Introduction
      Section 33.2.  Usability Guidelines
      Section 33.3.  Results of the Cognitive Walkthrough
      Section 33.4.  A Two-Part User Study
      Section 33.5.  Conclusion
      Section 33.6.  Acknowledgments
      Section 33.7.  About the Authors
          Chapter Thirty Four.  Why Johnny Can't Encrypt
      Section 34.1.  Introduction
      Section 34.2.  Understanding the Problem
      Section 34.3.  Evaluation Methods
      Section 34.4.  Cognitive Walkthrough
      Section 34.5.  User Test
      Section 34.6.  Conclusion
      Section 34.7.  Related Work
      Section 34.8.  Acknowledgments
      Section 34.9.  About the Authors
      About the Editors