Windows 2000 Server provides several useful MMC snap-ins, including tools for setting up and managing a DNS server, a WINS server, and a DHCP server. Although the way you launch these tools may vary slightly depending on whether you're using Active Directory, once you have the tools loaded they act the same.
The DNS snap-in allows you to easily set up and manage a DNS server to locally resolve names to IP addresses and maintain authoritative records for your own domains. For more information on setting up and configuring a DNS server, see Chapter 6.
To add a server to the list of DNS servers that you administer, follow these steps:
Windows 2000 Server's DNS snap-in will attempt to connect to the server. If it is successful, it will display the statistics for that server, as well as the types of records and zones maintained by the server.
Figure 13-4. The DNS snap-in.
Unfortunately, the Windows 2000 Server DNS snap-in supports only those DNS servers running on Windows 2000 and Windows NT, so it can't administer any other DNS servers you may be running.
When you highlight a server in the DNS snap-in, the Action menu lists the following functions:
REAL WORLD Changing DNS Records
When you make a change to the DNS records, make sure you select Update Server Data Files. This option will increment the serial number, letting other DNS servers know that you've made a change and that they need to update their information. If you're using conventional DNS zones, do this only from the primary DNS server for a zone. If you're using Active Directory-integrated DNS, you can make the changes to any Active Directory-based DNS and it will propagate correctly to the other Active Directory DNS servers as well as notify secondary servers that there are updated records.
Windows 2000 Server DNS supports a wide variety of DNS record types, including many that will become increasingly important as the world moves to IPv6. The supported record types are shown in Table 13-2.
Table 13-2. Supported DNS record types
|Record Types||Common Name||Function||RFC|
|A||Address record||Maps a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) to a 32-bit IPv4 address||1035|
|AAAA||IPv6 address record||Maps an FQDN to a 128-bit IPv6 address||1886|
|AFSDB||Andrews file system (AFS) or DCE record||Maps a DNS domain name to a server subtype that is either an AFS version 3 volume or an authenticated name server using distributed computing environment (DCE) or network computing architecture (NCA)||1183|
|CNAME||Canonical name or alias record||Maps a virtual domain name (alias) to a real domain name||1035|
|HINFO||Host information record||Specifies the CPU and operating system type for the host||1700|
|ISDN||ISDN information record||Maps an FQDN to an ISDN telephone number||1183|
|MB||Mailbox name record||Maps a domain mail server name to the actual host name of the mail server||1035|
|MG||Mail group record||Maps a domain mailing group to the actual mailbox (MB) resource records of its members||1035|
|MINFO||Mailbox information record||Specifies a mailbox for the person who maintains the mail box or list, and can also specify a mailbox for related errors||1035|
|MR||Mailbox renamed record||Maps an old mailbox name to a new mailbox name for forwarding purposes||1035|
|MX||Mail exchange record||Provides routing information to reach a given mailbox||974|
|NS||Name server record||Specifies that the name server listed has a zone starting with the owner name||1035|
|PTR||Pointer resource record||Points to another DNS resource record, most often used in reverse lookup to point to the A record||1035|
|RP||Responsible person information record||Provides information about the person responsible for a server||1183|
|RT||Route-through record||Provides routing information for hosts lacking a direct WAN address||1183|
|SRV||Service locator record||Provides a way of locating multiple servers providing similar TCP/IP services||2052|
|TXT||Text record||Maps a DNS name to a string of descriptive text||1035|
|WKS||Well-known services record||Describes the most popular TCP/IP services supported by a protocol on a specific IP address||1035|
|X25||X.25 information record||Maps a DNS address to a public switched data network (PSDN) address number||1183|
For more information on each of these record types and what they mean, refer to the related RFC or see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit (1999), available from Microsoft Press.
The WINS snap-in for MMC allows you to set up and manage a WINS server to resolve IP addresses into the NetBIOS names needed to browse your network. If you've installed the WINS server, WINS will be listed on the Start menu's Administrative Tools menu. For additional information on setting up and configuring a WINS server, see Chapter 6.
In the TCP/IP Properties window for your WINS server's network connection, make sure the primary and secondary WINS servers are set to the WINS server you're working on. If a WINS server lists another WINS server in the TCP/IP Properties window, you may end up with some serious replication problems if the WINS service isn't available quickly enough at boot time.
To add a WINS server to those managed by the WINS snap-in, follow these steps:
By default, you'll see the primary and secondary WINS servers for the local machine in the left pane of the WINS window. The right pane of the WINS window highlights the current statistics for the selected WINS server.
The WINS snap-in lets you manage all of the functionality of the Windows Internet Name Service on multiple servers from the same application. The following are some functions you can perform with the WINS snap-in:
Add static entries only for computers that do not support WINS and only if absolutely necessary. Static entries are notoriously difficult to eliminate after replication and can be deleted only by the owner.
All of these functions can be performed on multiple WINS servers, not just the one you are running the application from.
Figure 13-5. The Properties window for a WINS server.
For more information on WINS, see the Microsoft Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit, (1999), available from Microsoft Press. Another good source is the Microsoft TCP/IP Training Kit (1997), also available from Microsoft Press.
If your network is large, you may need to install multiple WINS servers and set up replication among them. The WINS snap-in makes this task fairly easy, but be careful when setting up replication partners because replication problems can be troublesome with WINS servers.
It is generally preferable to set up replication between WINS servers in a hub or star pattern, as shown in Figure 13-6, with a single-master WINS server in the center and all other WINS servers replicating only with this server, using the push/pull method. While using a double hub, also shown in the figure, can provide additional redundancy, the replication problems that can arise generally outweigh the added reliability.
To view the replication partners for a WINS server, click the Replication Partners folder under the desired server. You can add replication partners by going to the Action menu, choosing New, and then choosing Replication Partner. To delete a replication partner, select the partner and choose Delete from the Action menu. To modify the replication properties, select the replication partner and choose Properties from the Action menu.
Figure 13-6. Hub and double-hub architectures.
When configuring replication partners, use push/pull replication for all WINS servers to simplify replication troubleshooting.
The DHCP snap-in is used to set up and manage a DHCP server, which in turn assigns and manages IP addresses and their properties for DHCP clients on the network. If you've installed the DHCP server, DHCP will be listed on the Administrative Tools menu. For more information on setting up and configuring DHCP, see Chapter 6.
The DHCP snap-in, shown in Figure 13-7, provides a single point from which to administer all of the properties and functionality of your DHCP servers. The following are some functions you can perform with the DHCP snap-in:
Use reservations instead of static IP addresses (which require exclusions) for all servers that need to maintain a specific IP address, such as DNS and WINS servers. This guarantees the server a consistent IP address while also providing the ability to recover the IP address in the future if the server is decommissioned or moved.
Scopes, Superscopes, and Multicast Scopes
A scope is simply the range of possible IP addresses on a network. If you find that you need to add more clients to a network and the scope is exhausted, you can add an additional scope. A superscope is a collection of scopes grouped together into a single administrative whole. Grouping scopes together into a superscope makes it possible to have more than one logical subnet on a physical subnet. A multicast scope lets you use ranges of class D addresses—addresses that are then shared by many computers (members of the multicast group).
Figure 13-7. The DHCP snap-in.
Figure 13-8. The Properties window for a DHCP scope.
The DHCP server lets you preconfigure many of the options that would normally need to be set manually for a standard, fixed-address, TCP/IP device. With the DHCP snap-in you can set many of the options either globally or individually for each scope. Individual clients can override these default settings, of course, but in most cases this will be neither necessary nor desirable if you've set up your DHCP options correctly. The options you can configure on a per scope or global basis are as follows:
As you can see, there are numerous options that you can configure for individual clients or DHCP scopes. Our recommendation is to set only the options you know you need to set. Leave alone anything you're uncertain about.