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Flexible, flexibility

The flexible organization can transform itself quickly and easily when needed, to better adapt to changing business conditions and requirements.


One of the four characteristics of an on demand business. This business will concentrate on its core competencies, differentiating tasks and assets, while tightly integrated strategic partners manage selected tasks outside those core competencies-everything from manufacturing, logistics and fulfillment, to HR and financial operations.


As companies increasingly look to compete online and in the international marketplace, globalization-transforming business processes and strategies to better connect with customers, partners and suppliers around the world-is rapidly becoming a business requirement.

Globus Project, The

The Globus Project is a multi-institutional research and development effort, centered at Argonne National Laboratory, creating fundamental technologies for Grid computing.

Government development

One of the five focus areas of grid computing, government development creates large-scale IT infrastructures to drive economic development and/or enable new collaborative government services.

Grid computing

A type of distributed computing in which a wide-ranging network connects multiple computers, whose resources can then be shared by all end-users; includes what is often called "peer-to-peer" computing.

Grid computing allows companies to deliver computing power where they need it, only when they need it; they pay for what they use, when they use it. Companies have the choice to build their own grid (insource it) or tap into one built by IBM (outsource it).

Grid computing encompasses five focus areas: research & development, engineering & design, business analytics, Enterprise Optimization, and Government Development.

Heterogeneous systems

Networks that include computers and other resources from different manufacturers, using different standards. In the on demand environment, where all parts of a company are interconnected and existing investments in infrastructure cannot simply be discarded, heterogeneous systems are a necessity.

IBM intraGrid

The IBM intraGrid, developed by IBM Research using Globus Project technologies, brings together IBM R&D projects from around the world, and serves as a test bed for Grid services and solutions. Through the development and management of the intraGrid, IBM has gained valuable, first-hand experience in building and operating true commercial computing Grids.


Infrastructure includes all of the hardware, software and services that allow an e-business to function.


One of the hallmarks of an on demand business, and one of the four characteristics of the on demand operating environment.

In the on demand world, integration goes far beyond connecting disparate computing assets, such as client and servers, so they can share information and "talk". The on demand operating environment must enable the integration of core business processes and systems so that business itself can flow inside and across enterprises. The very nature of these kinds of transactions demands data integrity, end to end-whether that end is in a government agency, a supplier, a distributor or a PDA in the hands of an individual consumer. Integrated systems are a key part of business integration.

Integration phase

The second stage of the e-business adoption cycle. In this phase, e-business moved from access to transactions. The "information highway" was replaced by "e-business". Banks enabled customers to move money among accounts. Airlines let them make online reservations. And consumers could trade stock, apply for loans, purchase goods and services, renew their driver's licenses, even get an education. This required far more than simple Web sites. It required behind-the-scenes integration of internal systems and business processes. This would pave the way for the next stage of the cycle, the on demand phase.


A popular cross-platform programming language used to add functionality to a Web site. Can be used on any PC or Macintosh Java-enabled computer.

Knowledge management (KM)

The creation, storage and collaborative sharing of employee information within the business environment, to enhance an organization's efficiency, productivity and profitability. Supported by advanced information technology tools and methods.

Legacy systems

A company's existing computing hardware, software and services. Typically, these represent a significant investment of the company's time and resources. In the on demand environment, that investment is protected, as legacy systems remain available and networked with the rest of the e-business infrastructure.


A version of UNIX developed in 1991 by Linus Torvalds that may be shared freely and runs on many hardware platforms. Open-standard technologies like Linux are one of the cornerstones of on demand computing.


Software that connects two separate applications and passes data between them. For example, there are several middleware products that link a database system to a Web server. These allow users to request information from the database using forms displayed on a browser, and enable the server to return dynamic Web pages based on the users' requests and profiles.


A field of science that aims to develop new atomic- and molecular-scale structures and devices for enhancing information technologies, as well as to discover and understand their scientific foundations.

Leaders in the development of nanotechnology, IBM's scientists have made numerous breakthroughs in the study of these small-scale devices.

On demand business

A company whose business processes-integrated end-to-end across the company and with key partners, suppliers and customers-can respond with flexibility and speed to any customer demand, market opportunity or external threat. An on demand business has four key attributes: it is responsive, variable, focused, and resilient.

On demand operating environment

The new computing architecture designed to help companies realize the benefits of on demand business. The on demand operating environment has four essential characteristics: it is integrated, open, virtualized, and autonomic.

On demand phase

The third phase of the e-business adoption cycle, on demand represents a fundamental change across processes and enterprises. This phase will bring a totally new kind of transformation-or, more specifically, new levels of integration: of processes and applications inside the business; of suppliers and distributors at either end of the business; of customers outside the enterprise; of employees inside it.

Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA)

Open Grid Service Architecture is a distributed interaction and computing architecture based around the Grid Computing service, assuring interoperability on heterogeneous systems so that different types of resources can communicate and share information.

Open, openness, open standards

One of the four characteristics of the on demand operating environment. In this highly integrated environment, there are really only two choices: either everybody uses the same technology, or all technologies can connect and integrate. Open technical interfaces and agreed-upon standards are the only realistic way all of his can connect.

Open system

A system whose characteristics comply with standards made available throughout the industry and that therefore can be connected to other systems complying with the same standards. This openness allows computing resources to work together, linking with devices and applications across organizational and geographic boundaries-an essential element of on demand business.

Operating environment

An operating environment consists of the system software and key applications that allow a computer or network to function.


A company chooses a consultant or application service provider to manage components of its internal IT structure, staff, processes and applications. This allows the organization to remain focused on its business goals.

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Architecting Portal Solutions
Architecting Portal Solutions: Applications Development
ISBN: 0738498645
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 82
Authors: IBM Redbooks

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