Lab 17.1 Self-Review Questions
In order to test your progress, you should be able to answer the following questions.
Answers appear in Appendix A, Section 17.1 .
Lab 17.2 Types of Triggers
In the previous lab of this chapter, you
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER course_au AFTER UPDATE ON COURSE FOR EACH ROW ...
In this code fragment, the statement FOR EACH ROW is present in the CREATE TRIGGER clause. Therefore, this trigger is a row trigger. If an UPDATE statement causes 20 records in the COURSE table to be modified, this trigger fires 20 times.
A statement trigger is fired once for the triggering statement. In other words, a statement trigger fires once, regardless of the number of rows affected by the triggering statement. To create a statement trigger, you omit the FOR EACH ROW in the CREATE TRIGGER clause. Consider the following code fragment:
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER enrollment_ad AFTER DELETE ON ENROLLMENT ...
This trigger fires once after a DELETE statement is issued against the ENROLLMENT table. Whether the DELETE statement
Statement triggers should be used when the operations performed by the trigger do not depend on the data in the individual records. For example, if you want to limit access to a table to business hours only, a statement trigger is used. Consider the following example.
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER instructor_biud BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON INSTRUCTOR DECLARE v_day VARCHAR2(10); BEGIN v_day := RTRIM(TO_CHAR(SYSDATE, 'DAY')); IF v_day LIKE ('S%') THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000, 'A table cannot be ' 'modified during off hours'); END IF; END;
This is a statement trigger on the INSTRUCTOR table, and it fires before an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement is issued. First, the trigger determines the day of the week. If the day happens to be Saturday or Sunday, an error message is generated. When the following UPDATE statement on the INSTRUCTOR table is issued on Saturday or Sunday
UPDATE instructor SET zip = 10025 WHERE zip = 10015;
the trigger generates the error message shown below:
update INSTRUCTOR * ERROR at line 1: ORA-20000: A table cannot be modified during off hours ORA-06512: at "STUDENT.INSTRUCTOR_BIUD", line 6 ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'STUDENT.INSTRUCTOR_BIUD'
Notice that this trigger checks for a specific day of the week. However, it does not check the time of day. You can create a more sophisticated trigger that checks what day of the week it is and if the current time is between 9:00
. If the day
Instead of Triggers
So far you have seen triggers that are defined on the database tables. PL/SQL provides another kind of trigger that is defined on database views. A view is a custom representation of data and can be referred to as a "stored query." Consider the following example of the view created against the COURSE table.
CREATE VIEW course_cost AS SELECT course_no, description, cost FROM course;
It is important to note that once a view is created, it does not contain or store any data. The data is derived from the SELECT statement associated with the view. Based on the
Similar to tables, views can be manipulated via INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements, with some restrictions. However, it is important to note that when any of these statements are issued against a view, the corresponding data are modified in the underlying tables. For example, consider an UPDATE statement against the COURSE_COST view.
UPDATE course_cost SET cost = 2000 WHERE course_no = 450;
Once the UPDATE statement is executed, both SELECT statements against the COURSE_COST view and the COURSE table return the same value of the cost for course number 450.
SELECT * FROM course_cost WHERE course_no = 450; COURSE_NO DESCRIPTION COST ---------- ------------------------ ---------- 450 DB Programming in Java 2000 SELECT course_no, cost FROM course WHERE course_no = 450; COURSE_NO COST ---------- ---------- 450 2000
As mentioned earlier, there are restrictions placed on some views as to whether they can be modified by INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements. Specifically, these restrictions apply to the underlying SELECT statement that is also referred to as a "view query." Thus, if a view query
Consider the following view created on the INSTRUCTOR and SECTION tables:
CREATE VIEW instructor_summary AS SELECT i.instructor_id, COUNT(s.section_id) total_courses FROM instructor i LEFT OUTER JOIN section s ON (i.instructor_id = s.instructor_id) GROUP BY i.instructor_id;
Note that the SELECT statement is written in the ANSI 1999 SQL standard. It uses the outer join between the INSTRUCTOR and SECTION tables. The LEFT OUTER JOIN indicates that an instructor record in the INSTRUCTOR table that does not have a corresponding record in the SECTION table is included in the result set with TOTAL_COURSES equal to zero.
In the previous versions of Oracle, this statement would look as
SELECT i.instructor_id, COUNT(s.section_id) total_courses FROM instructor i, section s WHERE i.instructor_id = s.instructor_id (+) GROUP BY i.instructor_id;
This view is not updatable because it contains the group function, COUNT(). As a result, the following DELETE statement
DELETE FROM instructor_summary WHERE instructor_id = 109;
causes the error shown:
DELETE FROM instructor_summary * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01732: data manipulation operation not legal on this view
You will recall that PL/SQL provides a special kind of trigger that can be defined on database views. This trigger is called an INSTEAD OF trigger and is created as a row trigger . An INSTEAD OF trigger fires instead of the triggering statement (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) that has been issued against a view and directly modifies the underlying tables.
Consider an INSTEAD OF trigger defined on the INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY view created earlier. This trigger deletes a record from the INSTRUCTOR table for the corresponding value of the instructor's ID.
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER instructor_summary_del INSTEAD OF DELETE ON instructor_summary FOR EACH ROW BEGIN DELETE FROM instructor WHERE instructor_id = :OLD.INSTRUCTOR_ID; END;
Once the trigger is created, the DELETE statement against the INSTRUCTOR_ SUMMARY view does not generate any errors.
DELETE FROM instructor_summary WHERE instructor_id = 109; 1 row deleted.
When the DELETE statement is issued, the trigger deletes a record from the INSTRUCTOR table corresponding to the specified value of INSTRUCTOR_ID. Consider the same DELETE statement with a different instructor ID:
DELETE FROM instructor_summary WHERE instructor_id = 101;
When this DELETE statement is issued, it causes the error shown:
DELETE FROM instructor_summary * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02292: integrity constraint (STUDENT.SECT_INST_FK) violated - child record found ORA-06512: at "STUDENT.INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY_DEL", line 2 ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'STUDENT.INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY_DEL'
The INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY view joins the INSTRUCTOR and SECTION tables based on the INSTRUCTOR_ID column that is present in both tables. The INSTRUCTOR_ID column in the INSTRUCTOR table has is a primary key constraint defined on it. The INSTRUCTOR_ID column in the SECTION table has a foreign key constraint that references the INSTRUCTOR_ID column of the INSTRUCTOR table. Thus, the SECTION table is
The original DELETE statement does not cause any errors because there is no record in the SECTION table corresponding to the instructor ID of 109. In other words, the instructor with the ID of 109 does not teach any courses.
The second DELETE statement causes an error because the INSTEAD OF trigger
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER instructor_summary_del INSTEAD OF DELETE ON instructor_summary FOR EACH ROW BEGIN DELETE FROM section WHERE instructor_id = :OLD.INSTRUCTOR_ID; DELETE FROM instructor WHERE instructor_id = :OLD.INSTRUCTOR_ID; END;
Notice that the new DELETE statement removes records from the SECTION table before the INSTRUCTOR table because the SECTION table contains child records of the INSTRUCTOR table. However, the DELETE statement against the INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY view causes another error:
DELETE FROM instructor_summary WHERE instructor_id = 101; DELETE FROM instructor_summary * ERROR at line 1: ORA-02292: integrity constraint (STUDENT.GRTW_SECT_FK) violated - child record found ORA-06512: at "STUDENT.INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY_DEL", line 2 ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'STUDENT.INSTRUCTOR_SUMMARY_DEL'
This time, the error refers to a different foreign key constraint that specifies the relationship between the SECTION and the GRADE_TYPE_WEIGHT tables. In this case, the child records are found in the GRADE_TYPE_WEIGHT table. This means that before deleting records from the SECTION table, the trigger must delete all corresponding records from the GRADE_TYPE_WEIGHT table. However, the GRADE_TYPE_WEIGHT table has child records in the GRADE table, so the trigger must delete records from the GRADE table first.
This example illustrates the complexity of designing an INSTEAD OF trigger. To design such a trigger, you must be aware of two important factors: the relationship among tables in the database, and the ripple effect that a particular design may introduce. This example suggests deleting records from four underlying tables. However, it is important to realize that those tables contain information that