Processes and process groups of integration management
This section describes the key processes that fall within project integration management. The aim is to describe each process and enable you to understand its role in integration, so that you can do it. The context of this is project integration management. The individual processes (and in brackets the process groups to which they belong) within project integration management are:
Note that this list can also be read as a sequence of things to do to run a project. The charter is a 'plan for a plan' or a high-level, first-cut plan for the project. Often it need be no more than a one-page 'What? Why? Who? How? Where? When?' outline of the project as it is first conceived, but for larger projects it may be a longer document. The purpose of the scope statement is to say what does and does not fall within the project, and, following from that, what the key interfaces of the project are. The key elements of the charter and the scope statement are also key
If you are finding it hard to start planning, here are two ideas that may help. First, start by writing just a one-page plan, with a few lines under the headings 'What are we trying to do in this project: Why? How? When?'. And secondly, develop in your mind, and later on paper, a high-level, very rough view of the aim and rationale for the project, which is provided by the charter, and an initial or 'strawman' view of the rough scope of the project and the key interfaces. In both of these, use the strawman approach (see key idea box). Things can always be revised as more is learnt.
The sequence of integration processes
Project management starts with project initiation. In project initiation the various project stakeholders are brought together to develop the project charter and the preliminary scope statement. Once those things are done the project then moves into the planning phase. Planning uses the outputs from initiation to start integrating all the detail needed to prepare, develop and coordinate the subsidiary plans produced in the project management plan.
Control will generate a set of preventive actions. They require an approval process and change control process, or
We will next look at some of the processes within project integration management in more detail.
How do projects get started?
How do projects come to be? There are many root causes leading to business needs for projects, including the commercial needs of the organization ('market driven'), new legal or regulatory requirements, changing
The project manager should understand the constraints and assumptions included in the project charter. 'Should', because that is the ideal but may not be possible; for instance, if the project is large and complex, say to modernize working practices across a varied, multi-business organization, working out the constraints and assumptions is a mini-project in itself. In such cases the key thing is for the project manager and sponsor to be aware of their state of ignorance, and the
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