Molecular Computing - page 72



Carbon, molecular properties pertinent to molecular computation, 6-7

Carrier-mediated transport across membrane, 46-49

Cascade systems, in molecular recognition, 44

Cassette mutagenesis, 212-213, 214


ATP hydrolysis as example of, 45-46

in Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, 109

link with molecular recognition, 45-46

definition of, 45 (see also Cocatalysis)

Cation, recognition of. See Spherical recognition

Cell, biological, using for computation, 182-184

3CNF-SAT or 3SAT, solving, 184

encoding of variables into cell, and problems with, 184

flip-flop in E. coli, 183-184

Cells, definition of in reaction-diffusion system, 102-103

Cellular automata

definition of, 66

DNA, using blocks of as, 171-172

one-dimensional, 79-80

Characterization of types of nonlinear media according to excitation characteristics, 83

Chemical computing. See also Instance machines

architecture-free, 65

structured, 65

Chemical network. See Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactors

Chemical processors. See also Instance machines, Reaction-diffusion systems, and

Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

architecturally free processors

stirred, 65

nonstirred, 65-66

structured processors, 65

Chiral receptor, 42

Chiral discrimination, 42

example of in chemical system, 54

Cilia, artificial. See Actuators, gel

Classification of nonlinear media, 83-84. See also Complexity

Cleft, in molecular recognition, 35

Cocatalysis, 46-47

Collision-based computing, 73-74, 76-82

breathers in DNA molecules as example of, 77-80

collision of breather with excited impurity, 78, 79

collision of breather with impurity, 77-79

collision of two breathers, 77, 78

dynamic circuits in, 76-82

mobile excitations in molecular arrays as example, 80-82

quasiparticles in gas-discharge systems as example, 82

sources of, 76

Complementarity, kinds of, 35

Complexation, effects of in supramolecular systems, 43-44


algorithmic, 1-4

definition of, 93-94


definition of, 93

in biological systems, 95-96

of biological systems, estimates of levels of complexity within, 95-96

computational, definition of, 93, 94-95

dynamic (see behavioral)

estimation of, numeric, 94-95

examples of in biological systems, 95-96

nonlinear, and link with high computational complexity, 98-99

sources of, 8

static (see Structural complexity)

structural, definition of, 93

link with behavioral complexity, 96


effect on adaptability, 5

of function, 3-5

Computational complexity. See Complexity, computational

Computation universality, 73, 76

Computer, deterministic, definition of, 2

Context sensitivity, 6, 12

physiochemical, 12

Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactors, 108, 137-138

Contour enhancement. See Image processing in Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

Control complexity. See Complexity, computational

Cosystems, in molecular recognition, 44

Coupled reaction-diffusion systems. See also Belousov-Zhabotinsky systems

chlorite-iodine reaction, used as a coupled reaction-diffusion system, 134-135

efficiency of recalling patterns in actual system, 138

finite-state machines, 135

Hopfield-type neural networks, implementing, 135-136

recognition capabilities of, 133-138

Turing machine, implementing, 135

Crown ether, as example of effects of complexa-tion, 43

Cryptate, 37, 43

CSTR. See Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactors