8.8 Summary


8.8 Summary

Change is not easy, but it is necessary. As was stated at the beginning of this book, a more ethical and sustainable work environment is good for business, good for shareholder value, good for society, and good for us.



References

  1. Freeman, T., Transforming Cost Management into a Strategic Weapon, The Consortium for Advanced Manufacturing—International (CAM-I), 1998, at http://www.cam-i.org/columns/ytransforming.pdf.

  2. Andrews, D., and S. Stalick, Street Smarts for Business Reengineers, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996.

  3. Rieley, B., Gaming the System, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Financial Times, 2001.

  4. Beer, M., "People Express Airlines: Rise and Decline", Harvard Case Study, Cambridge, MA, 1990.

  5. Kanter, R. M., "Power Failure in Management Circuits", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1979.

  6. Dahl, R., "The Concept of Power", Behavioral Science, July 1957, pp. 201–215.

  7. Machiavelli, N., The Prince, 1505, translated by W. K. Marriott, http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/machiavelli.html.

  8. Northcraft, G., and M. Neale, Organizational Behavior, 1990.

  9. Senge, P., The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, New York: Doubleday, 1994.

  10. Miranda, E., L. Rosqvist, and M. Hultin, "Managing Multiple Projects", University of Linköping, Sweden, 2001.

  11. Fichman, R., and S. Moses, An Incremental Process for Software Implementation, 1998.

  12. Paulk, M., et al., Capability Maturity Model for Software, Version 1.1, Software Engineering Institute, CMU/SEI-93-TR-024 ESC-TR-93-177, 1993.

  13. Schlichter, J., Achieving Organizational Strategies Through Projects: An Introduction to the Emerging PMI Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Agylon, 2002.

  14. McFeeley, B., IDEAL: A User's Guide for Software Process Improvement, Software Engineering Institute, CMU/SEI-96-HB-001, 1996.

  15. Allen, T., Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information within the R&D Organization, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984.

  16. Shapira, Z., and D. Berndt, "Managing Grand-Scale Engineering Projects: A Risk-taking Perspective", Research in Organizational Behavior, 1997.



Appendix A: IDEF0 notation

The notation used to describe the PO functionality is called IDEF0. The basic element of an IDEF0 model, as illustrated in Figure A.1, is a box containing a verb phrase (e.g., "execute project") describing the activity or transformation that takes place within the box. In IDEF0 syntax, inputs are shown as arrows entering from the left side of the box, while outputs are represented by arrows exiting from the right side of the box. Controls are displayed as arrows entering the top of the box and mechanisms are displayed as arrows entering from the bottom. Inputs, controls, outputs, and mechanisms (ICOMs) are all referred to as "concepts."

click to expand
Figure A.1: IDEF0 syntax.

IDEF0 models are organized hierarchically, as shown in Figure A.2. The high-level activity as represented by the enveloping, shadow-edged box is broken down inside the box into smaller activities. The concepts entering or leaving the box at the higher level are "consumed" or "produced" by the lower-level activities. There is no need to match every lower-level concept with another at a higher level. This "tunneling" in IDEF0 terminology helps improve the readability of the diagrams by allowing for details to be shown where appropriate.

click to expand
Figure A.2: IDEF0 hierarchical structure.

Complete information about the IDEF family of methods can be found at http://www.idef.com.