This chapter presented several statistics that can be important for network management: mean, mode, median, range, standard deviation, and variance. Although the amount of work needed to analyze a single MIB variable may seem intimidating,
Buchanan, Robert. The Art of Testing Network Systems . New York, NY: Wiley, 1996.
Evans, Merran, Nicholas Hastings, and Brian Peacock. Statistical Distributions . New York, NY: Wiley, 1993.
Ferrari, D. Computer Systems Performance Evaluation . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1978.
Gilchrist, W. Statistical Forecasting . New York, NY: Wiley, 1976.
Jain, Raj. The Art of Computer Systems Performance Analysis . New York, NY: Wiley, 1991.
Kececioglu, Dimitri. Reliability Engineering Handbook . Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice-Hall, 1991.
Naugle, Matthew. Network Protocols . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1994.
Robertazzi, Thomas G. Computer Networks and Systems: Queueing Theory and Performance Evaluation , 2nd ed. Springer, 1994.
Spohn, Darren L. Data Network Design . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
Stallings, William. SNMP, SNMPv2, and RMON , 2 nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996.
Terplan, Kornel. Benchmarking for Effective Network Management . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1995.
Foster, K. " Math on the Internet. " IEEE Spectrum , Volume 36, Number 4, April, 1999.
RFC 1757, " Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base, " Steven Waldbusser, February 1995.
RFC 1857, " A Model for Common Operational Statistics, " M. Lambert, October 1995.
RFC 1902, " Structure of Management Information for version 2 of the Simple Network Managemenet Protocol, " Case J., McCloghrie K., Rose M., and Waldbusser S., April 1993.
RFC 2063, " Traffic Flow Measurement: Architecture, " Brownlee, N., Mills, C., and G. Ruth, January 1997.
RFC 2064, " Traffic Flow Measurement: Meter MIB, " Brownlee, N., January 1997.
Chapter 8. Understanding Network Management Protocols
Network managers need to have a base level of knowledge about the protocols used to do network management. This chapter will help you acquire this knowledge or review the protocols if you already are familiar with them. The chapter is designed to give you an overview of the most-used protocols and to discuss Cisco-specific information concerning them.
The protocols that are covered in this chapter are as
Ping is commonly used to check connectivity between devices. It's the most common protocol used for availability polling. It can also used for troubleshooting more complex problems in the network.
Ping uses Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo and Echo Reply packets to determine whether one IP device can talk to another. Most
Table 8-1. Ping Packet Sizes for Cisco Devices
Most host-based implementations of ping send one packet per second. Cisco IOS allows you to send packets as fast as the CPU and the network device can generate them and the network can take them. Of course, such stress testing should be done with discretion on production networks.
There are several issues that you should be aware of when using ping. Pings are generated and