Quality Function Deployment
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is about deployment of project requirements into the deliverables of the WBS by applying a systematic methodology that leads to build-to and buy-to specifications for the material items in the project. QFD is a very sophisticated and elegant process that has a large and robust body of knowledge to support users at all levels. One only need consult the Internet or the project library to see the extent of documentation.
QFD is a process and a tool. The process is a systematic means to decompose requirements and relate those lower level requirements to standards, metrics, development and production processes, and specifications. The tool is a series of interlocked and related matrices that express the relationships between requirements, standards, methods, and specifications. At a top level, Figure 8-10 presents the basic QFD starting point.
Figure 8-10: The House of Quality.
Phases of Quality Function Deployment
Although there are many implementations and interpretations of QFD that are industry and business specific, the general body of knowledge acknowledges that the deployment of requirements down to detailed specifications requires several steps called phases. Requirements are user or customer statements of need and value. As such, customer requirements should be solution free and most often free of any quantitative specifications that could be construed as "buy-to" or "build-to." Certainly the process limits discussed in the section on Six Sigma would not ordinarily be in the customer specification. Thus, for example, the Six Sigma process limits need to be derived from the requirements by systematic decomposition and then assignment of specification to the lowest level requirements.
Figure 8-11 presents a four-phase model of QFD. Typically, in a real application, the project manager or project architect will customize this model into either more or fewer steps and will "tune" matrices to the processes and business practices of the performing organization. We see in Phase A that the customer's functional and technical requirements are the entry point to the first matrix. The Phase A output is a set of technical requirements that are completely traceable to the customer requirements by means of the matrix mapping. Some project engineers might call such a matrix a "cross-reference map" between "input" and "output." The technical requirements are quantitative insofar as is possible, and the technical requirements are more high level than the specifications found in the next phase. Technical requirements, like functional requirements, are solution free. The solution is really in the hardware and software and process deliverables of the cost accounts and work packages of the WBS. As such, technical requirements represent the integrated interaction of the WBS deliverables.
Figure 8-11: QFD Phases.
Following Phase A, we develop the specifications of the build-to or buy-to deliverables that are responsive to the technical and functional requirements. We call the next step Phase B. The build-to or buy-to deliverables might be software or hardware, but generally we are looking at the tangibles in the work packages of the WBS. Specifications typically are numerical and quantitative so as to be measurable.
Subsequent phases link or relate the technical specifications to process and methodology of production or development, and then subsequently to control and feedback mechanisms.
Project managers familiar with relational databases will see immediately the parallels between the matrix model of QFD and the relational model among tables in a database. The "output" of one matrix provides the "input" to the next matrix; in a database, the "outputs" are fields within a table, and the output fields contain the data that are the "keys" to the next table. Thus, it is completely practical to represent QFD in a relational database, and there are many software tools to assist users with QFD practices. Practitioners will find that maintenance of the QFD model is much more efficient when employing an electronic computer-based database rather than a paper-based matrix representation.
Quantitative Attributes on the Quality Function Deployment Matrix
Looking in more detail at the house of quality in Figure 8-12, we see that there are a number of quantitative attributes that can be added to and carried along with the matrices. The specific project to which QFD is applied should determine what attributes are important.
Figure 8-12: QFD Details.
Symbols are sometimes added to the QFD chart; the symbols can be used to denote importance, impact, or probability of occurrence. Symbols could also be used to show sensitivity relationships among matrix entries. Sensitivity refers to the effect on attribute, parameter, or deliverable caused by a change in another attribute, parameter, or deliverable. The usual expression of sensitivity is in the form of a density: "X change per unit of change in Y."
Validating the Quality Function Deployment Analysis
A lot of effort on the part of the project team often goes into building the QFD house of quality matrices; more effort is required to maintain the matrices as more information becomes available. Some project teams build only the first matrix linking customer and project requirements, while others go on to build a second matrix to link project requirements with either key methods, processes, or specifications.
It is imperative that the project efforts toward QFD be relevant and effective. In part, achieving a useful result requires validation of the QFD results by business managers (Phase A) and by other subject matter experts (SMEs) on the various phases. Validation begins with coordination with the business analysis documented on the balanced scorecard, Kano analysis, or other competitive, marketing, or risk analysis. Validation often follows the so-called "V-curve" common in system engineering. An illustration of the "V-curve" applied to the QFD validation is shown in Figure 8-13.
Figure 8-13: V-Curve Validation Process.
Once validated to external drivers, such as the balanced scorecard or Kano analysis, the project team can validate the QFD matrices by examining the internal content. For instance, there should be no blank rows or columns. At least one data element should be associated with every row or column. Attributes that are scored strongly in one area should have strong impacts elsewhere and, of course, document all the assumptions and constraints that bear on attribute ratings and relationships. Examine the assumptions and constraints for consistency and reasonableness as applied across the project. Independent SMEs could be employed for the process, and the independent SMEs could be employed in a Delphi-like strategy to make sure that nothing is left behind or not considered.
Affinity and Tree Diagrams in Quality Function Deployment
Affinity diagrams are graphical portrayals of similar deliverables and requirements grouped together, thereby showing their similarity to or affinity for each other. Tree diagrams are like the WBS, showing a hierarchy of deliverables, but unlike the WBS, the QFD tree diagrams can include requirements, specifications, methods, and processes. Tree diagrams and affinity diagrams are another useful tool for identifying all the relationships that need to be represented on the QFD matrices and for identifying any invalid relationships that might have been placed on the QFD matrix.