One-stop shopping for serious Web developers!
The authoritative guide to every technology that enterprise Web developers need to master, from HTML 4 to Java 2 Standard Edition 1.3, servlets to JavaServer Pages, and beyond. Core Web Programming, Second Edition brings them all together in the ultimate Web development resource for experienced programmers.
HTML 4: In-depth, practical coverage of HTML document structure, block-level and text-level elements, frames, cascading style sheets, and beyond.
Java 2: Basic syntax, object-oriented design, applets and animation, the Java Plug-In, user interface development with Swing, layout managers, Java2D, multithreading, network programming, database connectivity, and more.
Server-Side Java: Servlets, JSP, XML, and JDBC-the foundations of enterprisedevelopment with Java. Advanced topics include JSP custom tag libraries,combining servlets and JSP (MVC), database connection pooling, SAX, DOM, and XSLT processing, and detailed coverage of HTTP 1.1.
This book's first edition is used in leading computer science programs worldwide, from MIT to Stanford, UC Berkeley to Princeton, UCLA to Johns Hopkins. Now, it's been 100% updated for today's hottest Web development technologies—with powerful new techniques, each with complete working code examples!
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Core web programming / Marty Hall, Larry Brown.
Only Marty Hall's name appears on previous edition.
1. Internet programming. 2. HTML (Document markup language) 3. Java (Computer program language) 4. CGI (Computer network protocol) 5. World Wide Web. I. Hall, Marty. II. Title.
QA76.625 .B757 2001
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TRADEMARKS—HotJava, Java, Java Development Kit, Solaris, SPARC, SunOS, and Sunsoft are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. All other products or services mentioned in this book are the trademarks or service marks of their respective companies or organizations
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However, when Marty went shopping for texts over the next semester or two, he got a rude surprise. Despite the availability of good books in most of the individual areas he wanted to cover, Marty found that he needed three, four, or even five separate books to get good coverage of the overall material. Similarly, for his day job, Marty was constantly switching back and forth among the best of the huge stack of books he had accumulated and various on-line references. Surely there was a better way. Shouldn't it be possible to fit 85 percent of what professional programmers use in about 35 percent of the space, and get it all in one book?
That was the genesis of the first edition of Core Web Programming. The book was very popular, but the industry has been rapidly moving since the book's release. Browsers moved from HTML 3.2 to 4.0. The Java 2 platform was released, providing greatly improved performance and graphics libraries suitable for commercial-quality applications. JSP 1.0 came along, resulting in an explosion of interest in both servlets and JSP as an alternative to CGI and to proprietary solutions like ASP and ColdFusion. XML burst upon the scene. The server equalled or even surpassed the desktop as the biggest application area for the Java programming language.
Wow. And demand has only been growing since then. Although readers were clamoring for a new edition of the book, it was just too much for Marty to handle alone. Enter Larry Brown, with broad development and teaching experience in Java and Web technologies, and with particular expertise in the Java Foundation Classes, multithreaded programming, RMI, and XML processing with Java. Larry teamed up with Marty to totally update the existing material to HTML 4, CSS/1, HTTP 1.1, and the Java 2 platform; to replace the CGI sections with chapters on servlets 2.2 and JSP 1.1; and to add completely new sections on Swing, Java 2D, and XML processing with JAXP, DOM Level 2, SAX 2.0, and XSLT. They even got a little bit of sleep along the way.
We—Marty and Larry—hope you find the result enjoyable and useful!
Real Code for Real Programmers
A word of caution, however. Nobody becomes a great developer just by reading. You have to write some real code too. The more, the better. In each chapter, we suggest that you start by making a simple program or a small variation of one of the examples given, then strike off on your own with a more significant project. Skim the sections you don't plan on using right away, then come back when you are ready to try them out.
How This Book Is Organized
Part 1: The HyperText Markup Language
Web pages are created with HTML, the HyperText Markup Language. HTML lets you mix regular text with special tags that describe the content, layout, or appearance of the text. These tags are then used by Web browsers like Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer to format the page. This first part of the book covers the following topics in HTML.
HTML 4.01. Full coverage of all the elements in the latest official HTML standard. Hypertext links, fonts, images, tables, client-side image maps, and more.
Major Netscape and Internet Explorer extensions. Forwarding pages, using custom colors and font faces, embedding audio, video, and ActiveX components.
Frames. Dividing the screen into rectangular regions, each associated with a separate HTML document. Borderless frames. Floating frames. Targeting frame cells from hypertext links.
Cascading style sheets. Level-one style sheets for customizing fonts, colors, images, text formatting, indentation, lists, and more.
Part 2: Java Programming
Java is a powerful general-purpose programming language that can be used to create stand-alone programs as well as ones that are embedded in Web pages. The following Java topics are covered.
Unique features of Java. What's different about Java? The truth about Java myths and hype.
Object-oriented programming in Java. Variables, methods, constructors, overloading, and interfaces. Modifiers in class declarations. Packages, the CLASSPATH, and JAR files.
Java syntax. Primitive types, operators, strings, vectors, arrays, input/output and the Math class.
Graphics. Applets. Applications. Drawing, color, font, and clipping area operations. Loading and drawing images. Java Plug-In.
Java 2D. Creating professional, high-quality 2D graphics. Creating custom shapes, tiling images, using local fonts, creating transparent shapes, and transforming coordinates.
Mouse and keyboard events. Processing events. Event types, event listeners, and low-level event handlers. Inner classes. Anonymous classes.
Layout managers. FlowLayout, BorderLayout, GridLayout, CardLayout, GridBagLayout, and BoxLayout. Positioning components by hand. Strategies for using layout managers effectively.
AWT components. Canvas, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane, Frame, Dialog, FileDialog, and Window. Component and Container. Buttons, check boxes, radio buttons, combo boxes, list boxes, textfields, text areas, labels, scrollbars, and pop-up menus. Saving and loading windows with object serialization.
Basic Swing components. Building Swing applets and applications. Changing the GUI look and feel. Adding custom borders to components. Using HTML in labels and buttons. Sending dialog alerts for user input. Adding child frames to applications. Building custom toolbars. Implementing a Web browser in Swing.
Advanced Swing. JList, JTree, and JTable. Using custom data models and renderers. Printing Swing components. Updating Swing components in a thread-safe manner.
Multithreaded programming. Threads in separate or existing objects. Synchronizing access to shared resources. Grouping threads. Multithreaded graphics and double buffering. Animating images. Controlling timers.
Network programming. Clients and servers using sockets. The URL class. Implementing a generic network server. Creating a simple HTTP server. Invoking distributed objects with RMI.
Part 3: Server-Side Programming
Programs that run on a Web server can generate dynamic content based on client data. Servlets are Java technology's answer to CGI programming and JSP is Java's answer to Active Server Pages or ColdFusion. The following server-side topics are discussed.
HTML forms. Sending data from forms. Text controls. Push buttons. Check boxes and radio buttons. Combo boxes and list boxes. File upload controls. Server-side image maps. Hidden fields. Tab ordering.
Java servlets. The advantages of servlets over competing technologies. Servlet life cycle. Servlet initialization parameters. Accessing form data. Using HTTP 1.1 request headers, response headers, and status codes. Using cookies in servlets. Session tracking.
JavaServer Pages (JSP). The benefits of JSP. JSP expressions, scriptlets, and declarations. Using JavaBeans components with JSP. Creating custom JSP tag libraries. Combining servlets and JSP.
Using applets as servlet front ends. Sending GET and POST data. HTTP tunneling. Using object serialization to exchange high-level data structures between applets and servlets. Bypassing the HTTP server altogether.
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). The seven basic steps in connecting to databases. Some utilities that simplify JDBC usage. Formatting a database result as plain text or HTML. An interactive graphical query viewer. Precompiled queries.
XML processing with Java. Representing an entire XML document by using the Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2. Responding to individual XML parsing events with the Simple API for XML Parsing (SAX) 2.0. Transforming XML with XSLT. Hiding vendor-specific details with the Java API for XML Processing (JAXP).
Making pages dynamic. Animating images. Manipulating layers. Responding to user events.
Validating HTML forms. Checking form entries as they are changed. Checking data when form is submitted.
Handling cookies. Reading and setting values. The Cookie object.
Controlling frames. Sending results to specific frames. Preventing documents from being framed. Updating multiple frame cells. Giving frame cells the focus automatically.
Throughout the book, concrete programming constructs or program output is presented in a monospaced font. For example, when abstractly describing Java programs that can be embedded in Web pages, we refer to "applets," but when we refer to Applet we are talking about the specific Java class from which all applets are derived.
User input is indicated in boldface, and command-line prompts are either generic (Prompt>) or indicate the operating system to which they apply (Unix>). For instance, the following indicates that "Some Output" is the result when "java SomeProgram" is executed.
Prompt> java SomeProgram Some Output
Important standard techniques are indicated by specially marked entries, as in the following example.
Pay particular attention to items in "Core Approach" sections. They indicate techniques that should always or almost always be used.
Notes and warnings are called out in a similar manner.
About the Web Site
The book has a companion Web site at
This free site includes:
Documented source code for all examples shown in the book; this code can be downloaded for unrestricted use.
Links to all URLs mentioned in the text of the book.
Information on book discounts.
Reports on Java short courses.
Book additions, updates, and news.
A free Ronco combination paring knife and e-commerce tool. OK, maybe not.
About the Authors
Marty Hall is a Senior Computer Scientist in the Research and Technology Development Center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab, where he specializes in the application of Java and Web technology to customer problems. He also teaches Java and Web programming in the Johns Hopkins part-time graduate program in Computer Science, where he directs the Distributed Computing and Web Technology concentration areas. When he gets a chance, he also teaches industry short courses on servlets, JavaServer Pages, and other Java technology areas. He is the author of Core Servlets and JavaServer Pages and the first edition of Core Web Programming. Marty can be reached at the following address:
Research and Technology Development Center
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory
11100 Johns Hopkins Road
Laurel, MD 20723
Larry Brown is a Senior Network Engineer at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, where he specializes in developing and deploying network and Web solutions in an enterprise environment. He is also a Computer Science faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University, where he teaches server-side programming, distributed Web programming, and Java user interface development for the part-time graduate program in Computer Science. Larry can be reached at the following address:
Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division
9500 MacArthur Boulevard
West Bethesda, MD 20817
Many people have helped us out with this book. Without their assistance, we would still be on the fourth chapter. Those that provided valuable technical feedback, pointed out errors, and gave useful suggestions include Don Aldridge, Chris Bennett, Camille Bell, Pete Clark, Maria Dimalanta, Nguyen-Khoa Duy, Denise Evans, Amy Karlson, Paul McNamee, Toddi Norum, Walter Pasquinni, Rich Slywczak, Bob Tinker, and Kim Topley. This book would not be a success without their contributions. Mary Lou "Eagle Eye" Nohr spotted our errant commas, awkward sentences, typographical errors, and grammatical inconsistencies. She improved the result immensely. We hope that we learned from her advice. Vanessa Moore produced the final version; she did a great job despite our last-minute changes and crazy travel schedules. Ralph Semmel and Julie Wessel both provided supportive work environments and flexible schedules. Greg Doench of Prentice Hall believed in a second edition and encouraged us to write the book. Thanks to all.
Most of all, I–Marty–thank B.J., Lindsay, and Nathan for their patience with my long hours and funny schedule. I–Larry–thank Lee for her loving support and patience while I disappeared to the computer room every weekend.
God has blessed us both with great families.