Near End Crosstalk. A type of crosstalk which occurs when signals transmitted on one pair of wires are fed back into another pair. Since at this point on the link the transmitted signal is at maximum strength and the receive signal has been attenuated, it may be difficult to maintain an acceptable ACR (Attenuation-to-Crosstalk Ratio). NEXT is particularly
A next generation network is a fancy (basically meaningless)
A next-generation news portal focusing on technology for businesses, ZCast.tv uniquely uses streaming media as a primary means of content delivery. "Streaming media," a
Non-Facility-Associated Signaling. Another term for out-of-
National Fire Protection Association. www.npfa.org. See NEC Requirements and the next definition.
Writing in an issue of Cabling Business Magazine, Andrew Bushelman and Xiaomei Fang talked about "The issue with plenum ceiling cabling installations is that the large amounts of cable may impose an unacceptably large fuel load
Network File System. One of many distributed-
Network File Transfer. Copies files between any two nodes on a network, either interactively or programmatically. Allows
next generation Digital Loop Carrier. A DLC that supports a hybrid fiber/copper transmission system, and both voice and data. The hybrid transmission system supports embedded UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) local
Next Generation Internet. An initiative of the Clinton administration announced in February 1997, NGI is "a second generation of the Internet so that our leading universities and national laboratories can communicate in speeds 1,000 times faster than today." A large part of NGI is Internet2, a project of the University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID). See also Internet2.
Next Generation Network. I think that has something to do with voice delivered by IP and allied data services also delivered by IP on the same IP circuit. Basically, next generation network is another marketing term.
Non-Geographic Number Portability. Toll-free
New Generation Operations Services and Software. A program of the TeleManagement Forum to produce a framework that will help design new generation OSS/BSS solutions, and a repository of documentation, models and code to support these developments. The goal of NGOSS is "to facilitate the rapid development of flexible, low cost of ownership, OSS/BSS solutions to meet the business needs of the Internet enabled economy". See TeleManagement Forum.
Non-Geostationary Orbit Satellite. NGSO
Next Hop Resolution Protocol. A protocol suggested by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) as a means of extending the issue of address resolution beyond the borders of individual IP subnets. The central issue is one of address resolution between IP addresses and ATM addresses when one is attempting to send IP packets over an ATM network, i.e. Classical IP over ATM. NHRP makes use of a NHS (Next Hop Server) to
Next Hop Server. See NHRP.
See National ISDN-1.
See National ISDN-2.
See National ISDN-3.
Nickel Hydride is a new technology used in batteries for portable devices, such as
Network Interface Adapter. An IBM hardware device that with certain software, will allow an SNA device to communicate over a packet switching network.
Four bits. Computer coding schemes usually, but not always, use eight-bit bytes. In other words, they encode a number, a letter or a character into 8-bits. Sometimes, they make use of smaller "bytes", like
A technique where four bit nibbles (one at a time) from each lower speed input a channel are used to build the higher speed frame output of a multiplexer.
The Nibble mode is the most common way to get reverse channel data from a printer or peripheral. This mode is usually combined with the compatibility mode or a proprietary forward channel mode to create a complete
Network Interface Card. The device that connects a device to a LAN. Usually in the form of a PC expansion board, the NIC executes the code needed by the connected device to share a cable or some other media with other stations. See Network Interface Card for a full explanation.
Near Instantaneous Companding. This describes the very fast,
Network Information Center; any organization that's responsible for supplying information about any network.
The InterNIC, which plays an important role in overall Internet coordination. See InterNIC.
The DDN NIC (Defense Data Network Network Information Center), which provides support for the defense community, much as does the InterNIC for all other Internet user communities.
National ISDN Council. A council of
NiCad: Nickel Cadmium is the most popular and durable type of
Lithium Ion (LiON) is the latest development in portable battery technology. These batteries do not suffer from memory effect. Compared to a NiMH of equal size, a LiON will deliver twice the run time from each charge. Unfortunately, these batteries are only available for a limited number of models and are expensive. Similar to NiMH technology, LiON batteries have a life expectancy of 400 charge and discharge cycles.
See Nickel Metal Hydride.
Ni-MH or NiMH. A rechargeable battery, now being used in laptop computers. Most of today's rechargeable batteries are nickel cadmium. These suffer from several problems:
They have a "memory." Which means they must be fully discharged once a month or they won't deliver their full potential.
They are hard to dispose of. Nickel hydride is a new technology with some benefits: It's easier to dispose of. It can hold at least 1.25 times as much power per unit as a standard nickel cadmium battery. It doesn't have a "memory." (Neither do car or telephone batteries, which are typically lead acid.) But there are some downsides: Nickel hydride batteries lose their charge faster than nickel cadmium. Nickel hydride batteries are ABOUT 30% more expensive than nickel cadmium. The Nickel hydride battery also can not put out power as fast as a nickel cadmium one can, so it probably won't be suitable for power tools and appliances that drain batteries quickly. But it's great for "slow-burning" items, like laptops and cellular phones. See Nickel Cadmuim Battery.
A LAN protocol specified in RFC-812. It requests information about a specific user or hostname from the Network Information Center (or NIC) name database service.
Network Inward Dialing. A service feature of an automatically switched telephone network that allows a calling user to dial directly to an extension number without operator intervention.
Network Interface Device. An electronic device that connects the telephone line and the POTS splitter to the local loop.
Network Interface Function.
Incoming calls to a switchboard during evening and
Night answer going to specific, assigned telephones.
Anybody and everybody can answer the incoming calls from any phone. In TELECONNECT, if the phone rings after hours, we simply touch "6" on any phone and we can answer that incoming call ” whether it's a local, normal DDD or incoming WATS.
This feature provides automatic printout of message registration data for all quest rooms at the front desk console.
An auxiliary ringer, usually wall mounted, used to
Provides an alternate attendant position which can be used at night in lieu of the regular console. Usually cheaper than buying a second normal console.
Assigned Night Answer, Fixed Night Service, Programmable Night Connections. Provides arrangements (which are prewired into the system) to route incoming central office calls normally answered at the attendant position, to preselected stations within the PBX system when the attendant is not on duty.
Your operator goes home, puts your phone system into "night service." A call now comes in. The night bell rings. You hear it. You go to a phone and hit a code (such as #6) or hit the flashing "Nigh Answer" button. And you answer the call. Not all phone systems need to be placed in Night Service for you to answer an incoming call from any phone. And you can program the night bell to ring all day.
Should the attendant neglect to place the console in the night answering mode, after a certain period of timed ringing from an incoming central office call, the entire system will automatically jump to the night service.
Routes calls normally directed to the attendant to preselected station lines within the system when it is arranged for night service. Calls to specific exchange trunks can be arranged to route to specific station lines and can be assigned on a flexible basis. Trunk Answer From Any Station capability is provided for calls which are handled by assigned night stations.
Provides arrangements to route calls normally directed to the attendant to preselected station lines within the PBX system when regular attendant
The phone assigned to automatically handle incoming calls after the main switchboard has shut down for the day.
Not Invented Here. The tendency of organizations to reject ideas and
National Information Highway. A term coined by Al Gore when he was Vice President of the United States under President Clinton. See also NII.
National Information Infrastructure. A clumsy name for the Information SuperHighway. NII is a term that came from a paper which the Gore-Clinton Administration released, called "National Information Infrastructure; Agenda for Action." According to one engineer, NII is "multiple,
Not In My BackYard. I love cellular telephones, although the coverage and transmission quality isn't always as good as I'd like. More cell sites would help, but NIMBY. The same goes for toxic waste dumps,
Not In My Term of Office.
Nickel Metal Hydride. See Nickel Metal Hydride.
(pronounced "nihm-kyoo") Acronym for "Not in My Queue." Said in response to suggestions to take on more work when you're already overwhelmed. Similar to the more common "It's not my job."
Network Information Management System.
There are many
The Federal Reserve's boardroom table in Washington is nine yards long. I don't know why.
In ancient Egypt, Ninkasi was the goddess of beer.
Network Intrusion Prevention. NIP systems are devices that are
The name of the RCA dog, once used by RAC as its logo.
Network Inward/Outward Dialing.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health.
Network Information Service. A way of
Network Imaging Server. A local area network based server largely devoted to storing, retrieving and possibly manipulating images. See also Server.
See National ISDN-1.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was
Network Interface Unit. Also known as a NID (Network Interface Device). The NIU serves as the point of demarcation between the local exchange carrier network and the customer premise. As required by the Modified Final Judgement (MFJ), which broke up the Bell System, the NIU currently is positioned outside the main body of the
North American ISDN Users' Forum.
Nederlands Keuringsinstituut voor Telecommunicatieapparatuur (Private laboratory for regulatory testing, The Netherlands).
See New Line.
Port that connects a node to an FC-AL. See Fibre Channel.
Network Layer Address. An address appended to the LAN packet that, unlike a MAC name, indicates exactly where a computing device is located within an internetwork. TCP/IP, DECNet and IPX support network layer addressing and each has its own unique NLA format. Protocol dependent routers use the NLA to make routing decisions.
Network Logical Data Manager. An IBM term. See also Netview.
The National Law Enforcement Telecommuncation System.
NetWare Loadable Modules. NLMs are applications and drivers that run in a server on a local area network under Novell's NetWare operating system and can be loaded or unloaded on the fly. The category of applications ranges from complex voice mail/auto attendant programs and electronic mail gateways to simple programs like drivers for PCI cards. In some other networks, such applications could require dedicated PCs. See Netware Loadable Module for a longer explanation.
Non Line of Sight.
Network Layer Protocol Identifier.
Name Lookup Service. An electronic directory service which is designed to respond to external queries for general information about a large group of users. Once installed, NLS can be accessed via finger or whois.
Non-Linear Schrodinger equation. Refers to the propagation of an optical pulse in a dispersive medium (in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity). Note: there should be an umlaut over the "o" in Schrodinger.
NetWare Link Services Protocol. A link state protocol from Novell to improve performance of IPX traffic in large internetworks.
nm. Nanometer. A billionth of a meter. Often used as a measure of frequency in a fiber
Network Management. A business process in a telecommunications organization that constantly
Network Management Forum. International forum for network management.
Network Management Center. A centralized location at the network management layer used to consolidate input form various network elements to monitor, control, and manage the state of a network in a telecommunications organization.
Network Management Command and Control Center.
Network Management Communications Manager.
Network Management Communications Network.
Network Management Forum. An international forum of service providers and suppliers developing network management solutions. Now known as the TeleManagement Forum. See Network Management Forum and TeleManagement Forum. www.nmf.org.
No Middle Initial.
Network Management Layer. The layer in the Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) standard addressing network functions including monitoring, management, and control. The network management layer is an abstraction of the functions provided by systems which manage network elements on a collective basis, so as to monitor and control the network end-to-end.
N-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor.
Network Management Protocol. An AT&T-developed set of protocols designed to exchange information with and control the devices that
Network Management Station or Network Management System. The system responsible for managing a portion of a network. The NMS talks to network management
Network Management Support.
Network Management Systems Engineering.
Nordic Mobile Telephone. One of the earliest 1G cellular network developed jointly in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Originally operated in the 450 MHz band. Later the 900 MHz was used as well.
Network Management Vector Transport. A network management protocol which provides alert problem determination statistics and other network management data within SNA management services.
Network Node. In frame relay, a network node is typically the frame relay service port connection and its associated virtual circuits.
National Control Center.
Network Node Interface. An Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) term. The interface between two public network pieces of equipment (contrast that to UNI, which stands for User Network Interface).
Network to Network Interface. A protocol defined by the Frame Relay Forum and the ATM forum to govern how ATM switches establish connection and how ATM signaling requests are routed through an ATM network. Equivalent to a routing protocol in a router environment.
Network to Network Interface. There are two types of network interfaces specified by frame relay standards. The first is a
National Network Management.
National Network Management Center.
Network News Transport Protocol. An extension of the TCP/IP local area network protocol that provides a network news transport service. NNTP is the standard for Internet exchange of Usenet messages, published in RFC-977. See Network News Transport Protocol.
National Network Support NNS: Network Software Support.
National Network Surveillance Center.
National Network Trouble Management.
The first three digits of a North American local telephone number, NNX once upon a time was used to identify the local central office exchange, or CO prefix. This prefix code breaks down as
The 3-digit code used historically for local telephone exchange prefixes. In the electromechanical era, limitations applied to the range of numbers usable in each position of the prefix. The current numbering plan allows for more variation in assigning Exchange Codes, and under it exchange codes are commonly referred to as "NNXs." See NNX for a full explanation.
No is the hardest word in the English language to say. Saying it can win you long- term
A service provided by a cellular carrier that automatically transfers an incoming cellular call to another phone number if the cellular subscriber is unable to answer. Most no-answer transfer systems will automatically transfer an incoming cellular call to another phone number if the cellular subscriber is unable to answer (it's not turned on) or if it's not answered after the third or fourth ring if the phone is turned on.
CBX systems with Direct Inward Dialing may be designed (configured) without an attendant console.
A name for a cellular phone from which you can make free phone calls ” local or long distance. The name "no bill" was given by crooks, largely in Southern California in the Spring of 1992, to phones they had modified to emulate other legitimate cellular phones. Thus all calls made by "no bill" phones are billed to
A circuit used to connect to a busy subscriber's line number.
In the event that a call to 911 is being transferred to a secondary or what they call a downstream PSAP (Public Service Answering Position), it is important that the caller never be left in disconcerting silence. After all it is an emergency call. "No hold" features allow the conference or transfer to be done while the PSAP 911 agent is in full uninterrupted communication with the caller.
A cell phone carrier restriction that
Requires the user to manually select (i.e. punch down) a line for each call.
Instruction that does nothing. It is used to hold the place for future insertion of a machine instruction.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A US government agency which runs satellites used, inter alia, to track wildlife movements. Two satellites, called NOAA-11 and NOAA-12, orbit the earth via the poles every 100 minutes. As the Earth revolves
Network Operations Business Information System.
Network Operations Center, a group which is responsible for the day-to-day care and feeding of a network. Each service provider usually has a separate NOC, so you need to know which one to call when you have problems. Also called NCC for Network Control Center. See also NOCC.
Network Operations Control Center. See also NOC.
Network Outward Dialing. A service feature of an automatically switched telephone network that allows a calling user to dial directly all user numbers on the network without operator intervention. See also Direct Outward Dialing.
Also called Hub architectures. Nodal network architectures means that network traffic from many locations are connected into a single network site for consolidation and aggregation to higher speed circuits. The traffic is then transmitted from this hub site to a central network site, or to other hub sites. Nodal architectures save money, but also increase the risk of a single network failure
A nodal state parameter that is
The principal clock or alternate clock located at a particular node that provides the timing reference for all major functions at that node.
A restriction on the use of nodes for
Another name for a MAC address. Every Network Interface Card (NIC) has a MAC address hardcoded into it. That address is unique in all the world to that NIC card. The MAC address effectively identifies the LAN-attached device with which it is associated. A NIC works with the network software and computer operating system to transmit and receive messages on the network. I first saw the use of the term Nodal ID in instructions to instal a PCMCIA network card into a laptop running Windows NT. Those instructions asked you for the card's nodal ID, which
A nodal parameter that requires the values of the parameter for all nodes along a given path to be combined to determine whether the path is acceptable and/or desirable for carrying a given connection.
Information that captures an aspect or property of a node.
A point of connection into a network. In multipoint networks, it means it's a unit that's polled. In LANs, it's a device on the ring. In packet switched networks, it's one of the many packet switches which form the network's backbone.
An SCSA term. An independent SCSA unit in a distributed processing SCSA network, consisting of one or more resource and/or network boards, and one or more SCxbus adapter boards. Communication between nodes take place via the SCxbus. From a device programming point of view, a node is simply an addressable system unit which contains
The unique identifier used to describe a specific node. See Node Number.
A node number identifies a network board on a local area network. Every station on a network must contain at least one network board. Each network board must have a unique node number to distinguish it from all the other network boards in that network. In a file server with more than one network board, the node number in LAN A is designated for all traffic addressed to that server. Node numbers can be set in a variety of ways, depending on which network board you use: (1) with
In IBM's SNA, the classification of a network device based on the protocols it supports and the network addressable units (NAUs) it can contain. Type 1 and Type 2 nodes are peripheral nodes. Type 4 and 5 nodes are subarea nodes.
NoFA (pronounced as one word, /NO-fuh/). Notice of Field Activity. A notification created by engineers to notify others (users, other
Notice Of Inquiry. The first public notification that the FCC is about to hold a public inquiry into a particular subject.
Microsoft has coined the term, NOIS, for the group of four Net-centric companies that tend to believe that what happens on the Internet might be so strong as to alleviate Microsoft's hegemony over the PC industry. The four
Unwanted electrical signals introduced into telephone lines by circuit components or natural disturbances which tend to degrade the performance of the line. Also known as Line Noise.
Noise in stock market parlance is market rumors, guesses, and faulty analysis. It contrasts with information, which consists of solid
Headset manufactures have long sought to reduce the background noise transmitted via headsets. One approach is the use of noise cancelling microphones. These microphones consist of two separate microphones, one directed at the headset user's mouth, the other in the
A second approach to noise reduction is the use of voice switching technology. This technique only allows the microphone to transmit when volume
As a solution, some headset manufacturers have merged the two technologies. By using a noise cancelling microphone and voice switching, they achieve near perfect noise reduction. Each manufacturer offers noise cancelling technology on some of their headsets.
Noise cancelling is important in a telephone call center. In a large center, as room noise rises, agents speak louder. For those
At a given data-signaling rate or modulation frequency, operating wavelength, and effective noise bandwidth, the radiant power that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of unity at the output of a given optical detector. Information Gatekeepers defines NEP as a measurement in fiber optics that at a given modulation frequency, wavelength, and for a given effective noise bandwidth, the radiant power that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 at the output of a given detector. Some manufacturers and authors, according to Information Gatekeepers, define NEP as the minimum detectable power per root unit bandwidth; when defined in this way, NEP has the units of watts/(hertz) 1/2. Therefore, the term is a misnomer, because the units of power per watts. Some manufacturers define NEP as the radiant power that produces a signal-to-dark current noise ratio of unity. This is misleading when dark-current noise does not dominate, as is often true in fiber systems.
NF. The ratio (in dB) between the signal-to-noise ratio applied to the input of the microwave component and the signal-to-noise ratio measured at its output. It is an indication of the amount of noise added to a signal by the component during normal operation. Lower noise figures mean less degradation and better performance.
Let's say you're designing wireless local area networking transmitter/receivers. In your lab everything is peaceful and tranquil. But the real world is different. There's the guy next door with his
A series of terms used to express circuit noise. These units include: -dB RN ” Decibel rated noise -dBrnC ” C message
Filtering or digital signal-processing
An amplifier noise rating based upon temperature measured in degrees.
In optical communication, an rms component of the optical detector electrical output voltage which is incoherent with the signal radiant power.
A method of assigning a specific value to the transmission
NOL is shorthand for net operating loss carried forward for income tax purposes and is an indication of how much future earnings are
For those of you who don't speak French, particularly Old French, "Nom de Ligne"
Mexican flavor of C7, which is the ITU flavor (i.e. version) of Signaling System 7, also called SS7. See Signaling System 7.
Nomadic broadband means broadband that can be accessed anywhere within the service area. The CPE/modem is connected to the desk- top/laptop via USB or Ethernet port and can be moved to get broadband access
A fancy name for allowing laptop and home computer users to dail over the public telephone network, from hotel rooms, from client offices, from home or from airports to access information on the corporate LAN.
See Mobile IP.
National Office Machine Dealers Association. NOMDA merged with LANDA (Local Area Network Dealers Association) and became NOMDA/LANDA. It's now known as BTA (Business Technology Association). See BTA.
Approximate. For example, the nominal signaling rate of T-1 is 1.5 Mbps, and the actual rate is 1.544 Mbps. The nominal signaling rate of T-3 is 45 Mbps, and the actual rate is 44.736 Mbps. In conversational terms we use the nominal rates of 1.5 Mbps and 45 Mbps just because they're easier to say. We assume that the other party in the conversation understands that the nominal rate is not the actual rate. Assuming, of course, can cause big problems. The
The approximate rate at which stuffing bits are inserted (or deleted) when both the input and output bit rates are at their nominal values.
An RFID definition. The read range at which the tag can be read reliably.
The approximate speed at which a signal moves through a cable,
A routing method that cannot adapt to or accommodate changes in a network.
A device which can support a full traffic load without experiencing congestion. The term typically is applied to a switch, such as a PBX or an ATM switch. A PBX can be characterized as fully non-blocking if the internal switching matrix is capable of supporting connectivity between all ports,
ATM backbone switches commonly are virtually non-blocking, as traffic loads are very heavy and as Quality of Service (QoS) requirements can be extreme.
A switching system where a connection path always exists for attached device. See Non-Blocking.
A telephone company definition. The nine months not selected as part of the Busy Season.
Any unintelligible television interference such as sparklies, heavy snow, lines in the picture,
IBM-speak for to withhold approval, as in I non-concur with this proposal.
A Bluetooth term. A device that does not responds to paging (an attempt to establish a communication link) is said to be in non-connectable mode. The opposite of connectable mode is connectable mode.
Often referred to as "jump hunting." NON-CONSECUTIVE lines, trunks or extensions can be accessed or "searched" by the switching equipment upon dialing the initial number in the hunting group to find a connection to the first non-busy phone. NON-CONSECUTIVE hunting can be used on incoming and outgoing lines. For example, you could order four trunks from your local phone company which are to "hunt" on. Should the first be busy, the call will go to the next. If the next is busy, then it will hunt to the next. TELECONNECT Magazine has "consecutive" numbering in its first four phone numbers ” 212-691-8215, 8216, 8217 and 8218. But let's say we only started with one number and then, because of growth, we needed three more. It's possible consecutive numbers might be taken. Therefore to get the hunting feature, the phone company might have assigned us NON-CONSECUTIVE hunting numbers like 691-8220, 8256, 8678. Sometimes the phone company will also assign us "coded" trunks as part of our trunk group. These are trunks which have no dialable number associated with them. It's best to get real numbers so you can test them by calling them individually. You cannot test coded trunks.
That part of the technical load not required for synchronous operation.
Bit with encoding violating normal format: used for special control purposes.
A node on which user applications are available while network resource maintenance applications execute in the background.
A term which refers to the inability of being able to predict the performance or delay on a network where collision is possible.
A network where access to the transmission medium within some specified period, cannot be
Six-digit telephone numbers which follow the pattern 88X-NXX, for routing and billing of calls to extremely isolated stations. Such stations are either beyond the reach of the wireline public switched telephone network (PSTN) or are too low (e.g., in a canyon) for satellite communications. Operator intervention is required to reach these remote areas by radio or some other means. Note that each non-dialable toll point consumes a full NNX, often referred to as a Central Office prefix, of 10,000 telephone numbers. This fact adds to the strain on the North American Numbering Plan (NANP).
An antenna that transmits and receives equally well in all directions, usually on one plane; also called omnidirectional antenna.
A Bluetooth term. A device that cannot respond to an inquiry is said to be in non-discoverable mode. The device will not enter the INQUIRY_RESPONSE state in this mode. See also discoverable mode. non-pairable mode A device that does not accepts pairing. is said to be in non-pairable mode. The opposite of non-
A type of Single Mode Fiber (SMF) used in fiber optic transmission systems. See NDSF.
Non-dominant carriers were identified by the Federal Commmunications Commission as small long distance carriers. These carriers received a special dispensation from the FCC ” namely they didn't have to make public the long distance prices they charged.
Restrictions placed on cable television systems prohibiting them from importing
Stockbrokers are subject to all sorts of rules and regulations by the Federal Government. Every phone call they make or receive is recorded. Every correspondence they send ” from faxes to
A switch where a through traffic path always exists for each attached phone. Generically, a switch or switching environment designed never to experience a busy condition due to call volume. See Non-Blocking, which is a better term.
Refers to printers that do not strike a
Crosstalk which is not of sufficient level to be
Non-interlaced refers to monitors whose
Radio waves, infrared rays and visible light rays, none of which can affect an atom's electrical balance.
Any connection from a CPE to a central office switch that is not
In ISDN language, a non-ISDN trunk is any trunk not served by either SS7 or D-channel signaling.
Amplitude distortion of a signal in which the output signal does not have a linear relationship to the input signal.
Cable pairs or transmission lines with no added inductive loading coils. In short, straight, raw copper pairs. See Load Coils.
An interrupt on a PC that cannot be disabled by another interrupt.
In local area networking technology, describes a carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) local area network (LAN) in which the stations involved in a collision do not try to retransmit immediately ” even if the network is quiet. Compare with persistent and p-persistent.
A character in a transmission code which
See Interlaced GIF.
A Local Area Network that can connect the equipment of many vendors. See Proprietary LAN.
There are various interpretations of what
In X.400, a non-receipt notification is a report prepared by a recipient UA (User Agent) or Access Unit (upon request) and sent to the originating UA or Access Unit when a message is deemed unreceivable by a recipient.
A mechanism which prevents a user from
LAN protocols, such as IBM's NetBIOS, LAN Server and SNA, that use
In the US emergency services telephone network, the routing of 911 calls to a serving public safety answering point based only on the originating Central Office. Compare to Selective Routing. See E-911 Service.
Utility industry term for calls made as third party billings,
A type of synchronous access mode that can exist between an end user and a host computer in an Amdahl packet network. In non-session access, the calling line (PU) is mapped to a specific offering line (LU). The offering line is reserved for that calling line at all times.
NSDP-B&S. Part of the EIA/TIA Interim Standard-124 (IS-124) for Data Message Handler (DMH), a method used in the cellular industry for exchanging non-signaling messages between service providers on a near real-time basis. DMH originally was used to facilitate call hand-offs between carriers. It was extended to serve a number of other purposes. NSDP-B&S is the DMH extension for the transfer of billing and
NSDP-F. Part of the EIA/TIA Interim Standard-124 (IS-124) for Data Message Handler (DMH), a method used in the cellular industry for exchanging non-signaling messages between service providers on a near real-time basis. DMH originally was used to facilitate call hand-offs between carriers. It was extended to serve a number of other purposes. NSDP-F is the DMH extension for the detection and prevention of cellular fraud. As the carriers can communicate access and usage on an electronic basis in near real-time through DMH, it is possible to more readily detect fraud by identifying collision, measuring velocity, and profiling. Collision is the association of multiple call records occurring at overlapping times, and is indicative of multiple fraudulent callers accessing one or more cellular networks at the same time, masquerading as a single legitimate user. Velocity is a measurement of the speed of calling activity; i.e., the number of calls placed during a given period of time. If the velocity is exceptionally high, the implication is that multiple fraudulent callers might be masquerading as a single legitimate user, perhaps across multiple networks. Profiling simply involves the home service provider's maintaining a profile of calling activity over a period of time. If calling activity suddenly fails to match that profile, especially on a roaming basis, the
Half duplex transmission. Transmission in one direction at a time. This mode of transmission may be the result of limitations of the transmission channel or of the transmitting/receiving equipment.
See Casual Calling.
See Asynchronous Communications.
A fancy word for selling your wares via a Web page on the Internet.
Telephone company facilities which are unaffected by changes in volume of telephone activity.
A transmission environment,
Microsoft word for "hard."
Memory which is not lost (i.e. that does not "forget") when the power is shut off.
Electronic circuitry that provides back-up operation of CMOS RAM and/or Flash PROM in case of a power failure.
A storage medium that does not lose its contents when power is removed.
Also called the block "A" carrier. The "A" originally stood for "alter- nate." The FCC, in setting up the licensing and systems in each market. It reserved one for the local wireline telephone company, and opened the second system ” the Block A system ” to other interested
NZDF. A type of Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF) that is used in long haul, high speed fiber optical transmission systems. See DSF for a full explanation.
AppleTalk Phase 2 network that supports addressing of up to 253 nodes and only 1 zone.
In information technology, a nonce is a parameter that varies with time. A nonce can be a time stamp, a visit counter on a Web page, or a special marker intended to limit or prevent the unauthorized replay or reproduction of a file. Because a nonce changes with time, it is easy to tell whether or not an attempt at replay or reproduction of a file is legitimate; the current time can be compared with the nonce. If it does not exceed it or if no nonce exists, then the attempt is authorized. Otherwise, the attempt is not authorized.
In general usage, a nonce is a pronounceable string of characters invented and used only in a given context. The origin of the term goes back to the Middle Ages with "the anes," an expression meaning "for the immediate occasion." This evolved to "the nonce."
A leased or hardwired connection line permanently installed between two points. Also called leased line or private line.
Network Operations Protocol.
New Order Processing System.
An OR Gate with a digital inverter at its output.
Network Operators Research Committee.
The Nordic Mobile Telephone system operating at 450 MHz; introduced in 1981. See the next definition.
Essentially an upgrade of the NMT450 to 900 MHz with enhancements and more channels. See the previous definition.
My loving wife says I have no idea of the meaning of the word normal.
Bell shaped curve, with 90% of the values within 1.645 standard deviations of the mean and 98% of the values within 2.33 standard deviations of the mean. In each case, half of the values are greater than the mean and half are less than the mean. See Mean.
The AC voltage that exists between the normal current-carrying wires, that is, between neutral and hot or live.
NRM. HDLC mode for use on links with one primary and one or more secondaries. Under NRM, a secondary can transmit only after receiving a poll addressed to it by a primary. It may then send a series of responses. But after it sets the F bit in a response, it cannot transmit any more until it receives another poll.
Tennis without the emotion, mistakes and frustration. What Patrick Bullot and Harry Newton would prefer to play, but can't.
A call center term. To change an unusual call statistic
Average transfer delay divided by packet transmission time at the clock rate of the medium.
Network throughput in packets per second divided by maximum throughput possible at clock rate of medium. Less than one.
The average number of attempted packet transmissions per second divided by the average number of packet transmissions/second possible at the clock rate of the medium. May exceed one.
Nortel is a shorthand version of Northern Telecom's corporate name (which remains Northern Telecom Limited). According to the company's annual report, it is designed to reflect the corporation's heritage, while signaling a new direction, presenting a single face that reinforces Northern Telecom's global presence. The new logo, with its Globemark "O", creates a dynamic visual symbol for a corporation whose business