You want to prevent an interface from participating in RIP.
You can prevent an interface from participating in RIP with the following set of commands:
Router1#configure terminal Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router1(config)#access-list 12 deny any Router1(config)#router rip Router1(config-router)#passive-interface FastEthernet0/1 Router1(config-router)#distribute-list 12 in FastEthernet0/1 Router1(config-router)#end Router1#
As we discussed in Recipe 6.1, you enable RIP on an interface with a network command. But because RIP expects any networks you specify this way to follow address class rules, it is quite easy to inadvertently enable RIP on an interface that you don't want to use this protocol.
There are two important reasons that might lead you to disable RIP on a particular interface. First, if you are already running another protocol on a particular interface, then the additional RIP traffic could consume important bandwidth resources. Second, there may be devices on a particular network segment that you do not trust. In this case you want to make sure that you don't let them distribute routing information into your network. This is particularly important because some Unix workstations run RIP by default, but the administrators rarely devote much attention to making sure that any local static routes have the correct metric values. It is possible for one misconfigured workstation to completely disrupt routing for an entire network.
This recipe does two things to disable RIP. First, the passive-interface command tells RIP not to send any routing information out through the specified interface. But this does not prevent the router from listening for incoming routes. So we have also applied an inbound distribute-list command to the interface to prevent RIP from learning any routes this way.
To demonstrate this, in the following example, we have applied the passive interface command, but not the distribute list:
Router1#show ip route rip R 192.168.30.0/24 [120/1] via 172.25.2.2, 00:00:09, Serial0/0.2 172.25.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks R 172.25.25.2/32 [120/1] via 172.25.2.2, 00:00:09, Serial0/0.2 R 192.168.20.0/24 [120/1] via 172.22.1.4, 00:00:08, FastEthernet0/1 Router1#
As you can see, the router is still learning routes through the FastEthernet0/1 port. A debug trace proves that although the router doesn't send any routing information out through this interface, it does receive information this way:
Router1#debug ip rip RIP protocol debugging is on Aug 11 02:35:33.403: RIP: sending v1 flash update to 255.255.255.255 via FastEthernet0/0 Aug 11 02:35:33.403: RIP: build flash update entries Aug 11 02:35:33.403: subnet 0.0.0.0 metric 16 Aug 11 02:35:33.403: RIP: sending v1 flash update to 255.255.255.255 via Serial0/0.2 Aug 11 02:35:33.403: RIP: build flash update entries Aug 11 02:35:33.403: subnet 0.0.0.0 metric 1 Aug 11 02:35:33.403: network 172.21.0.0 metric 1 Aug 11 02:35:39.012: RIP: received v1 update from 172.22.1.4 on FastEthernet0/1 Aug 11 02:35:39.012: 192.168.20.0 in 1 hops
Then, when we add the distribute-list command inbound on the FastEthernet0/1 interface, the unwanted route disappears from the routing table:
Router1#show ip route rip R 192.168.30.0/24 [120/1] via 172.25.2.2, 00:00:04, Serial0/0.2 172.25.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 5 subnets, 2 masks R 172.25.25.2/32 [120/1] via 172.25.2.2, 00:00:04, Serial0/0.2 Router1#
You can see the effects of both commands in the output of the show ip protocols command:
Router1#show ip protocols Routing Protocol is "rip" Sending updates every 30 seconds, next due in 13 seconds Invalid after 180 seconds, hold down 180, flushed after 240 Outgoing update filter list for all interfaces is not set Incoming update filter list for all interfaces is not set FastEthernet0/1 filtered by 12 (per-user), default is 12 Redistributing: rip Default version control: send version 1, receive any version Interface Send Recv Triggered RIP Key-chain FastEthernet0/0.1 1 1 2 Serial0/0.2 1 1 2 Automatic network summarization is in effect Maximum path: 4 Routing for Networks: 172.22.0.0 172.25.0.0 Passive Interface(s): FastEthernet0/1 Routing Information Sources: Gateway Distance Last Update 172.25.1.7 120 00:00:08 172.25.2.2 120 00:00:00 Distance: (default is 120) Router1#
Note that you could apply an inbound access list to an interface to prevent the router from receiving RIP updates from other devices. To do this, you would simply apply a filter to block UDP port 520. However, as we discuss in Chapter 19, you cannot use access control lists on an interface to filter outbound router packets. In any case, that method forces the router to look at every incoming packet. This can cause serious CPU problems on fast links. It is far more efficient to just let the RIP process do the filtering, as we have shown in this recipe.
Similarly, it is more efficient to use the passive interface command to prevent the router from sending routes out through an interface, rather than using an outbound distribute list that merely blocks all routes. This is because with the passive interface command, the router doesn't have to compare the routes it wants to send to an access list to decide whether to send them. Instead, it just knows not to send any routes.