Definitions containing non-letters ” like @, #, / and numbers ” are in ASCII order. Definitions with real
Blank Space = ASCII 32
! = ASCII 33
# = ASCII 35
& (Ampersand) = ASCII 38
- (Hyphen or dash) = ASCII 45
. (Period) = ASCII 46
/ (Forward slash) = ASCII 47
0 (zero) = ASCII 48
1 = ASCII 49
2 = ASCII 50
3 = ASCII 51
4 = ASCII 52
5 = ASCII 53
6 = ASCII 54
7 = ASCII 55
8 = ASCII 56
9 = ASCII 57
; (semi colon) = ASCII 59
A (capital A) = ASCII 65
Capital letters to ASCII 90
\ (back slash) = ASCII 92
Lower case letters
start with a = ASCII 97
My dictionary conforms to American spelling. To convert American spelling to British and Canadian spelling typically requires adding a second "L" in words like signaling and dialing (they're American) and changing "Z" in words like analyze to analyse. Center in American is Center. In Britain, Europe, Australia and Canada, it's Centre. This dictionary contains more British, Australian and European words (and their correct spellings) than previous editions ” a result of several overseas lecture
All high-tech industries make up new words by joining words together. They typically start by
Sometimes it's a matter of personal choice. Some people spell database as one word. Some as two, i.e. data base. I prefer it as one, since it has
Sometimes it's a matter of how it looks. I prefer T-1 (T-one), not T1, simply because T-1 is easier to recognize on paper. I define co-location as co-location. Websters spells it collocation, with two Ls, one more than mine. I think mine is more logical. And since Mr. Webster is dead, he can't argue with me. I like email. But readers have told me they prefer e-mail. You'll probably find it spelled both ways in this dictionary, since it's not easy to be thoroughly consistent in an industry (and dictionary) changing so fast.
Plurals give trouble. The plural of PBX is PBXs, not PBX's. The plural of PC is PCs, not PC's, despite what the New York Times says. The Wall Street Journal and all the major computer magazines agree with me. The plural
Sometimes the experts don't even get it right. Take something as common as 10Base- T. Or is it 10BaseT? 10Base-T is an IEEE standard. So you'd think they'd know. Forget it. Go to their web site, www.ieee.org. You'll find as many hits for 10Base-T as for 10BaseT. Ray Horak and I checked every known and unknown expert in the Western world (i.e. those living within a block or two of Ray). We now believe the correct spelling is 10Base-T.
Sometimes, I don't simply know. So I may list the definition twice ” once as two separate words and once as one complete word. As words and terms
Bits and Bytes per Second.
Telecom transmission speed has
The telecom and computer literature is loaded with references to Bps and bps. You'll see them as Kbps, kBps or KBps, or Kbits/sec. You'll see them as Mbps or MBps. You'll see them as Gbps or GBps. There is no consistency in the industry's "literature," i.e.
First, k means kilo or a thousand. M means mega or one million. And g means giga, which is a thousand million, or 1,000,000,000. The term kbps means a thousand bits per second. And that's a telecom transmission term meaning that you're transmitting (and/or receiving) one thousand bits in one second. The
There is an exception to this neat rule. Fibre Channel and other transmission systems used in SANs (Storage Area Networks) measure transmission speeds in Bps (Bytes per second). Here, the terminology is driven by the application, which is the transfer of data between storage systems.
Now to computing speeds: The term KBps (with a big K and a big B) means one thousand bytes per second. MBps (with a big M and a big B) means one million bytes per second. They refer to speeds inside the computer, e.g. from your hard disk to your CPU (central processing unit ” your main microprocessor). There's a big difference between a bit and a byte. A byte is typically (but not always) eight bits.
That's the way it's
Measuring the speed of a communications line is not easy. And tools to measure lines are still very primitive. The Internet added a whole new dimension to complexity. Since the Internet is a packet switched network, every transmission goes a different way. So, one transmission that might be one million bits per second might, a minute later, be 800,000 bits per second. There are sites on the Internet that measure your connection speed, by sending you a big file, and then waiting for you to send back some message that you've received the file. But they report numbers all over the space from one moment to another. About the only certain thing you know is that the speed of a circuit is always measured by the slowest part of the circuit. Look at the Internet. You might be getting horribly slow downloads, despite being on a T-1. That might be due to a horribly overloaded server at the other end or it might be due to the fact that your T-1 is overloaded with other users at the office, also downloading. These days with faster lines what's often a gating factor is the speed of your PC. It may be simply not be fast enough for your PC's browser to keep up with the speed of your incoming bits. In which case you need a faster PC. It
Virtually all telecom transmission is full duplex and symmetrical. This means if you read that T-1 is 1,544,000 bits per second, it's full duplex (both ways simultaneously) and symmetrical (both directions the same speed). That means it's 1,544,000 bits per second in both directions
There's one more complication. Inside computers, they measure storage in bytes. Your hard disk contains this many bytes, let's say sixty gigabytes (thousand million bytes). That's fine. But they're not bytes the way we think of them in internal computer transmission terms. They're different and they have to do with a way computer stores material ” on hard disks or in RAM. They're what I call "storage bytes." When we talk about one KB of storage bytes, we really mean 1,024 bytes. This comes from the way storage is actually handled inside a computer, and calculated thus: two raised to the power of ten, thus 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 1,024. Ditto for one million, two raised to the power of twenty, thus 1,048,576 bytes.
Which Words Get Defined?
Which words get defined in this dictionary? These are my rules: All the important terms in the field are defined. No proprietary products, i.e. those made by only one firm, are defined. No proprietary terms are defined. I am the first to admit that my rules are not precise. Writing a dictionary is very personal. I read over 100 magazines a month. I study. I cogitate. I try to understand. Eventually, my wife calls, "Enough with the words, already. It's 2:00 AM. Time to sleep."
A or An? Here's The Logic
I admit my fallibility. This edition of this book is riddled with "a" when it should be "an" and "an" when it should be "a." I've never been confused. I always believe "an" is used before
Concerning the problem of what article ("a" or "an") should be used with a word or an acronym, it all depends on how the acronym is pronounced, that is, whether it's pronounced as a string of letters or as a word. In some cases, the article would be the same. In others, the form would have to switch. Usually "an" is used before vowels, but some consonants require it as well, and some vowels require an "a." It all depends on the sound. Whether a letter is intrinsically a vowel or a consonant doesn't really matter; what matters is if it's pronounced as a vowel or a consonant in the particular context.
If an acronym is pronounced as a string of letters, the following shows the appropriate article to use with the first letter of the acronym:
An A An H An O A V
A B An I A P A W
A C A J A Q An X
A D A K An R A Y
An E An L An S A Z
An F An M A T
A G An N A U
If an acronym is pronounced as a word, the article might need to change:
An RS-232, but a RAM (pronounced "ram")
An STP, but a SRDM (pronounced "sardem") and a SLC (pronounced "slick")
An FTP, but a FAIC (pronounced "fackey")
An HIC, but a HICUP (pronounced "hiccup")
According to The New York Public Library Writer's Guide to Style and Usage, "The article a is used before all consonant sounds, including a sounded h, a long u, and an o with sound of w (as in one). The article an is used before all vowel sounds except a long u and before words beginning with a silent h." This definition has never helped me because I've never really
The real trouble, of course, is that unless one is really, really familiar with the acronym, one doesn't know how it's actually used: pronounced as a string of letters or as a word. I thought SIPL would be "an SIPL" (an ess-eye-pea-ell) until
Thank Yous for Help On This Dictionary
Among the manufacturers, special thanks to Anixter, Aspect Communications, AT&T, Intel/Dialogic, Ecos Electronics, General Cable, Intel, Lucent, Micom, Microsoft, Worldcom, NEC, March Networks, Mitel, New York Telephone (now Verizon), Northern Telecom (now Nortel), Racal Data, Ricoh, Sigma Designs, Sharp and Teknekron. Among the magazines I borrowed (or
Special thanks also RFIDJournal.com for their help on RFID definitions, to Jane Laino of Digby 4 Group, NYC, the best telecom consultants in the world; to Jeffrey Welch, consultant of Fenton Michigan, Jon L. Forsyth, Manager at Cambridge Strategic Management Group, Cambridge, MA.; to Henry Baird of Seattle
Special thanks also to Ian Angus at the Angus TeleManagement Group in Ajax, Ontario, who embarrassed me into expanding my Canadian coverage; to Andrew Reichman, who works in E911 data processing in the Pacific Northwest; to Glenn Estridge, one of the world's leading experts on dense wave division multiplexing and the whole wonderful world of fiber optics; to John Arias, a seriously good technician Bell Atlantic who came to fix a busted lne and left
I'm very grateful to Dan Thomas, VP Marketing of Telemobile Inc., Torrance, CA who helped me a lot with wireless local loop definitions.
I'm very grateful to The ATM Forum of Mountain View, CA (www.atmforum.com) for allowing me to use many of their definitions from their really well-done ATM Forum Glossary. I'm also grateful to Donovan Bezer, who works as a law clerk at the NJ Ratepayer Advocate (consumer counsel for phone customers) and who helped me understand the government/judicial treatment of the term ISP.
I'm very gateful to the unbelievably talented people at UBS Warburg ” Pip Coburn, Faye Hou, Qi Wang, David Bujnowski, Weiyee In, Boris Markovich, Sean Debow and Rafael Volet. These people put out the best research on telecom and technology on Wall Street. They also published a small, but great dictionary, called Telexicon, which I've consulted. As they say in my business, if you steal from one person, it's called plagiarism. If you steal from many, it's called research. I do research. And their Telexicon was most useful in my research. Thank you guys.
I'm very grateful to Muriel Fullam, Matt Kelsey, Frank Brogan and Ray Horak. Without all these wonderful people, this dictionary wouldn't be as good as it's turning out. If I sound surprised, you're right. It's now the largest-selling telecom, networking and Internet dictionary in the world.
Huge thank you to Gavin Wedell, who did a major polishing job on the 19th edition. His resume says it all "Highly motivated, fast learning and creative individual with a thorough understanding of the business and technology paradigm. Strengths in writing, analysis and oral communication." Fortunately he also knew a lot about technology since he had recently
A big "Thank You" to the dozens of people and dozens of companies who helped. If I left you out, I apologize.
I wrote this dictionary on a series of ever-
ABOUT HARRY NEWTON
Harry Newton 50 Central Park West
New York, NY 10023
Tel 212-206-7140 Fax 775-254-3491
Web site: www.HarryNewton.com
Personal web site: www.HarryNewton.com
Investing web site: www.InSearchOfThePerfectInvestment.com
Harry Newton keeps busy writing this dictionary, writing a daily column on investing (www.InSearchOfThePerfectInvestment.com), writing a book on investing (called "In Search of the Perfect Investment") and being an angel investor in technology
In an earlier life, Newton and his
Newton is always willing to listen to a new idea for a new business, but says he does a mean due diligence, which means he says NO a lot. Here are his criteria:
It should be a "hard" technology. That means it should be hard and expensive for someone else to duplicate.
The management team had better be incredible. That means they should have broad skills, integrity and a serious
They had better be obsessed with sales and marketing. What the world doesn't need is another technology playpen ” a place for angels and venture capitalists to endlessly dump money into so the entrepreneurs can invent more "cool" products.
The valuation ought to be reasonable, i.e. to allow for considerable upside.
The company ought to believe in regular and open reporting to its shareholders. No one expects instant success. There will be stumbling blocks along the way. If those stumbling blocks are hidden away they become insurmountable.
Senior Contributing Editor
Ray Horak, President
The Context Corporation 1500A East College Way, PMB 443
Mt. Vernon, WA 98273
Email: email@example.com www.contextcorporation.com
Ray Horak is a consultant, lecturer and author who develops and delivers seminars on telecommunications technologies, services and management systems. He speaks annually before telecom, networking and IT professionals in public and private
He has an ability to unravel the intricacies of voice, data, video systems and networks. Ray's seminars provide technical depth, without overwhelming or confusing the attendees. Ray provides the right amount of technical detail in commonsense, understandable, plain-English. I rediscovered Ray through a seminar he taught for TCA (TeleCommunications Association)
Ray's public seminars are
Ray is a regular
Ray was an Adjunct Faculty member of The University of San Francisco (USF), McLaren Graduate School of Business, and currently serves on the USF Telecom Program Advisory Board. He also serves on the Advisory Committee of the Skagit Valley College (Mount Vernon, WA) Electronics/Telecommunications Technology Program.
Ray's experience in communications dates way back to 1970, when he joined Southwestern Bell. His experience also includes AT&T, Bell Labs, and CONTEL, where he was region Vice President. He founded several companies for CONTEL before serving as General Manager for the company's Houston Executone operation. CONTEL was later acquired by GTE and then Verizon.
Ray has been on his own for the last 15 years as President of The Context Corporation, an independent consultancy and training organization in Mt. Vernon, Washington.
According to Ray, his greatest