A cable TV (CATV) industry
In computer graphics, the number of addressable points on a display surface or in storage.
In micrographics, the number of addressable points, within a specified film frame, written as
A cable TV term. The capability of controlling the operation of cable subscriber settop converters by sending commands from a central computer. Such addressability is
In computer graphics, any point of a device that can be addressed. See Addressability.
A mode that
The intended recipient of a message.
Refers to the way that the operating system
Automatic Document Feeder.
Adapter Description File.
Average Delay to Handle. Average time a caller to an automatic call distributor waits before being connected to an agent.
Automatic Data Handling.
A term used in telephone call centers to connote whether the people working in the center are doing what they're
Adherence monitoring means comparing real-time data coming out of an ACD with forecast call
A cellular radio term. Two
When two or more carrier channels are placed too close together in the frequency spectrum, they interfere with each other and mess up each other's conversations.
Adjacent colocation is the same as physical colocation. See Colocation.
A cellular radio term. Two Mobile Data Intermediate Systems (MDISs) are adjacent if each MD-IS controls one of a pair of adjacent cells.
An MTA (Message Transfer Agent) that directly connects to another MTA. A Message Transfer Agent operated by a public service provider or PTT (Post, Telegraph, and Telephone administration), or a client MTA.
In SNA, nodes that are connected to a given node with no
In DECnet and OSI, nodes that share a common network segment (in Ethernet, FDDI, or Token Ring networks).
A relationship formed between selected neighboring routers and end nodes for the purpose of exchanging routing information. Adjacency is based upon the use of a common media segment.
A channel or frequency that is directly above or below a specific channel or frequency.
In SNA, nodes that are connected to a given node with no intervening nodes.
In DECnet and OSI, nodes that share a common network segment (in Ethernet, FDDI, or Token Ring networks).
Two CCS/SS7 signaling points that are directly
Network system in the Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1 architecture that contains SLEE (Service Logic Execution Environment) functionality, and that communicates with an Advanced
An auxiliary device connected to the ISDN set, such as a speakerphone, headset adapter, or an analog interface.
A system installed behind a PBX or a Centrex. Such a key system provides the users with several more features than the PBX or Centrex. Not a common term today.
Power supplied to optional data or voice equipment in an equipment room, telecommunications closet, or work area, through separate power
A computer outside a telephone switching system that "talks" to the switch and gives it switching commands. An adjunct processor might include a database of customers and their recent buying activities. If the database shows that a customer lives in Indiana, the call from the customer might be switched to the
An AIN (Advanced Intelligent Network) term for a decentralized SCP (Signal Control Point). An Adjunct Processor supports AIN services which are limited to one or more SSPs (Service Switching Points), which are SS7-equipped Central Office PSTN switches. Where multiple SSPs are supported, they typically comprise a regional network grouping. Adjunct Processors can include routing logic or call authorization security specific to a particular geographic area, providing switches with switching commands.
ASP. An intelligent-network feature that resides at the Intelligent peripheral equipment and responds to service logic interpreter
When a segment of Token Ring (in practice a dual ring) trunk cable fails, a function known as the Wrap connects the main path to the backup
Application Definable Keys.
Add/Drop Multiplexer. A multiplexer, such as a terminal multiplexer, capable of extracting and inserting lower-rate signals from a higher-rate multiplexed signal without completely
Administration Management Domain. An X.400 Message Handling System public carrier. Examples include MCImail and ATTmail in the U.S., British Telecom's Gold400mail in the U.K. The ADMDs in all
The rarefied organizational
An SCSA definition. A service provider which supports administrable services (for example, SCSA Call Router).
The method of labeling, identifying and documenting an organization's voice/data communications cabling infrastructure.
A term used by the telephone industry to program features into a phone system. On a Northern Telecom Norstar system, administration includes making settings on
System speed dial;
Names on phones;
Time and date;
Night Service and
The capability for the system administrator to perform most routine system administrative functions remotely from any Touch Tone pad. Such functions include mailbox maintenance (e.g. create, delete, set password, set class of service, etc.) and disk maintenance.
A X.500 directory management domain run by a PTT (Posts, Telegraph, and Telephone administration) or other public network provider.
Part of Lucent's premises distribution system that distributes hardware
A Windows NT term. Administrative alerts relate to server and resource use; they warn about problems in areas such as security and access,
Admin. The PC (Politically Correct) term these days for what we used to call a secretary. Some knucklehead in HR (Human Resources), which we used to call Personnel), probably invented the term to make secretaries feel more important. Actually, admins do a lot more than secretaries used to do, and they really are more important. It still seems like a silly
Cisco defines administrative distance as a rating of the
AD. A group of
An ATM term. A collection of managed entities grouped for administrative reasons.
The Virtual Network Service layer that provides the customer and telco with the ability to monitor, maintain, reconfigure, and manage the network. The administrative layer consists of two components: Service View Management tools and Applications Hosts.
An X.400 electronic mail term: a network domain
A location at which communication circuits are administered, i.e. rearranged or rerouted, by means of cross connections, interconnections, or information outlets.
ASLP. The SLP responsible for managing the feature interactions between Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1 features resident on a single SLEE (Service Logic Execution Environment).
That part of a premises distribution system where circuits can be rearranged or rerouted. It includes cross connect hardware, and
A category of telephone company trunk groups that provide call status monitoring. The function may be one of revenue protection (i.e., coin overtime collection), telephone operator assistance (i.e., verification), protection of the message network from overloads (i.e., no-circuit announcements.), etc. Types of trunk groups in this category include: Announcement, Coin Supervisory, Coin Zone, Permanent Signal, Vacant Code and Verification.
A value set by the network administrator to
The individual responsible for managing the local area network (LAN). This person configures the network, maintains the network's shared resources and security,
A silly term for administrative
Asymmetric Digital Microcell Link. A Telcordia standard for Wireless Local Loop (WLL). Using low-power, omnidirectional radio systems, ADML can be deployed to cover an area as large as 1 mile in radius. ADML supports as much as 1 Gbps aggregate bandwidth, providing individual users with bandwidth in radio channels as great as T-1 (1.544 Mbps). See also Wireless Local Loop and LMDS.
Advanced Digital Network. ADN is Pacific Bell of California's low-cost leased 56 Kbps digital service. ADN is available for intraLATA calls.
Auxiliary Disconnect Outlet. A device usually located within the tenant or living unit used to terminate the ADO cable or backbone cable. Source ANSI/TIA/EIA-570-A.
Apple Desktop Bus. A synchronous serial bus allowing connection of the Mac keyboard, mouse and other items to the CPU. A Mac keyboard or mouse is called an ADB device. Contrast with peripherals, which attach through the SCSI interface.
Automatic Data Processing. The same as DP, data processing.
The name of a company which processes my pay check.
Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation. A speech coding method which uses fewer bits than the traditional PCM (Pulse Code Modulation). ADPCM calculates the difference between two consecutive speech samples in standard PCM coded telecom voice signals. This calculation is encoded using an adaptive filter and therefore, is transmitted at a lower rate than the standard 64 Kbps technique. Typically, ADPCM allows an analog voice conversation to be carried within a 32-Kbps digital channel; 3 or 4 bits are used to describe each sample, which represents the difference between two adjacent samples. Sampling is done 8,000 times a second. ADPCM, which many voice processing
Automatic Data Processing Equipment.
Average Delay in Queue. An important measure of the customer responsiveness of a call center. See also ASA, Average Speed of Answer.
See American Depositary Receipt.
(pronounced add-rump) AutoDialing Recorded Message Player. A device that calls a bunch of telephone
AudioGram Delivery Services.
The IETF working groups are grouped into areas, and managed by Area Directors, or ADs. The ADs are
Analog Display Services Interface. ADSI is a Telcordia standard defining a protocol on the flow of information between something (a switch, a server, a voice mail system, a service
A set of Microsoft ActiveX controls that abstract the capabilities of directory services from different network providers to present a single set of directory service interfaces for accessing and managing network resources.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. One of a number of DSL technologies, and the most common one. ADSL is designed to deliver more bandwidth downstream (from the central office to the customer site) than upstream. The technical reason for this asymmetry has to do with issues of cross-
ADSL was developed by Telcordia and is now standardized by ANSI as T1.413; ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Committee)
The ADSL Forum is an industry association formed to promote the ADSL concept and to facilitate the development of ADSL system architectures and protocols for major ADSL applications. Its anme ahs been changed to DSL Forum.
Also known as G.lite, Universal ADSL and Splitterless ADSL, a proposal of the UAWG (Universal ADSL Working Group) for a simplified version of ADSL. An interoperable extension of ANSI T-1.413 ADSL, ADSL Lite is application-specific, designed
Also known as ITU Recommendation G.992.3, ADSL2 was approved by the ITUT in August 2002. ADSL2 improvements include line diagnostics, power management, power cutback, reduced framing and on-line configuration.
Apple Datastream Protocol. A transport mechanism for interprocess communications between Apple Macintosh and Dec Vax minicomputers.
Automated Document STorage And Retrieval.
ATM DSU. Terminal adapter used to access an ATM network via an HSSI-compatible device. See also DSU.
Abstract Data Type.
Audio Tracking Database.
ACR Decrease Time Factor: This is the time permitted between sending RM-cells before the rate is decreased to ICR (Initial Cell Rate). The ADTF range is .01 to 10.23 sec with granularity of 10 ms.
Automated Digital Terminal System.
Asynchronous Data Unit.
Payment of all or part of a charge required before start of service.
See Advance Replacement.
A warranty service whereby the
ABX. An uncommon term meaning a private branch exchange (PBX) with advanced features normally including the ability to handle both voice and data in some
ACS. A large data communications network established by AT&T.
Advanced Class of Service Management. Essential for delivering the required QoS to all applications. Cisco switches contain per-VC queuing, per-VC rate scheduling, multiple CoS queuing, and egress queuing. This enables network managers to refine connections to meet specific application needs. Formerly called FairShare and OptiClass.
ADCCP. A bit-oriented,
AIN. The local Bell telephone companies' architecture for the 1990s and beyond. See AIN for a much
AIX. An IBM version of UNIX. AIX runs on PS/2 computers, IBM workstations, minicomputers, and mainframes.
AIV. Interactive videodisc format and system using LV-ROM, a method of storing analog video, digital audio, and digital data on a single videodisc. The system was developed by Philips UK, the British Broadcasting Corporation, Acorn Computer, and Logica Ltd. Most prominent application was the BBC's Domesday Project.
AMPS. The analog cellular system originally developed by AT&T and currently installed throughout the United States (800 MHz) and various other
APPN. An SNA protocol that allows network nodes to interact without using a host computer. Instead, each network device runs both client and server portions of an application.
An industry standard for taking advantage of a computer's power saving features. Used particularly in battery-
An AT&T/Lucent term which means the PBX user gets access to all the services of an Enhanced Private Switched Communications Services (EPCS) network. It also works when it is associated with AT&T's Common Control Switching Arrangement (CCSA) network.
ARDIS. A network originally developed by Motorola for IBM's field service personnel. The service was established commercially in 1990 by a partnership between IBM and Motorola. In 1994, IBM sold its interest back to Motorola. ARDIS has coverage in more than 400 major metropolitan areas and more than 10,000 cities. The ARDIS network is based on a Motorola technology called Data TAC and has traditionally focused on vertical markets (i.e. specialized applications) with major customers, such as Otis Elevator, Sears, and a host of municipal public safety and emergency departments.
This is the FCC's definition: Advanced telecommunications capability is the availability of high-speed, switched, broadband telecommunications that enables users to originate and receive
An older telephony definition of advanced services is as follows: Value-added telephony services beyond standard analog voice service. Advanced services include call waiting and call forwarding, private branch exchanges, ISDN, digital data, and other voice and data services.
ATV. Any television technology that provides audio and video quality that is better than is provided by the current television broadcast system, or that
An Ethernet-based local area network from Hewlett Packard, Palo Alto, CA. See Ethernet.
An interactive role-playing computer game in which the player becomes a character in the narrative.
An advertising technique in which the detailed product information is embedded in a computer game
This is marketing-speak for television adverts that are designed to be entertaining or
A packet switched networking term. Advertising is a process in which routing or service updates are sent at specified intervals so that other routers on the network can maintain lists of usable routes.
AOC. Basically this is fancy name for seeing on your phone what you're being charged for the call as you speak. This service comes with some cell phones and some ISDN phones.
Some people think it should be spelled adviser. Some think it should be spelled advisor. The most common spelling is adviser.
Signals such as dial tone, busy, ringing, fast-busy, call-waiting, camp-on and all the other tones your telephone system uses to tell you that something is happening or about to happen.
Account Executive. A fancy, schmanzy name for a salesperson. The idea is that the customer is an "account," and the
Analog Expansion Bus. The analog voice processing bus designed by Dialogic which allows multiple cards to route audio signals within a PC. It is used to interface DTI/124 and D/4x voice response component
Acoustic Echo Cancellation.
Alternate Exchange Carrier. See CLEC.
Alternate Exchange Carrier Name. A unique identifier for a CLEC. It is a 4 digit number. CLEC stands for competitive local exchange carrier. Some phone companies call the AECN an ECC, which stands for Exchange Carrier Code. See ECC and Industry Standard Codes.
Aeronautical Emergency Communications System Plan. The AECS Plan provides for the operation of aeronautical communications
Automatic Electronic Management Information System. This was the first computerized UCD/ACD reporting system introduced by AT&T for CO UCD (Uniform Call Distribution). This package was updated to become the PRO 150/500 system for UCD management on the Dimension PBX/UCD. AEMIS was the successor to the FADS or Force Administration Data System. It was an electro-mechanical system of peg counters and different colored busy lamp fields used to note trunk and position status.
AppleTalk Echo Protocol. Used to test connectivity between two AppleTalk nodes. One node sends a packet to another node and receives a duplicate, or echo, of that packet.
Cables strung outside and overhead. They're called aerial even though they only hang from poles or
Also called a tree stand. A cross box on a pole. Used when there's a narrow easement.
A method of running cables through the air, typically pole-to-pole. The old fashioned way. Some phone companies say aerial cable is more reliable than
In a direct-buried or underground cable run, an aerial insert is a cable rise to a point above ground, followed by an overhead run, e.g., on poles, followed by a drop back into the ground. An aerial insert is used in places where it is not possible or practical to
Cable and other telephone paraphernalia that is
A device used to splice aerial service wire and attached to the aerial wire. It's also called a football or a potato. Why? Because that's its shape.
SS7 MTP 2 function that provides monitoring of link alignment errors.
An aeronautical station used for advisory and civil defense communications primarily with private aircraft.
An aeronautical station which makes scheduled broadcasts of
An earth station in the fixed-satellite service, or, in some cases, in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service, located at a specified fixed point on land to provide a feeder link for the aeronautical mobile-satellite service.
AECS Plan. The AECS Plan provides for the operation of aeronautical communications stations, on a voluntary, organized basis, to provide the President and the Federal Government, as well as heads of state and local governments, or their designated representatives, and the aeronautical industry with communications in an emergency.
A radiocommunication service between specified fixed points provided primarily for the safety of air navigation and for the regular, efficient and economical operation of air transport.
A station in the aeronautical fixed service.
An aeronautical mobile service intended for communications, including those relating to flight coordination, primarily outside national or international civil air routes.
An aeronautical mobile service reserved for communications relating to safety and regularity of flight, primarily along national or international civil air routes.
A mobile satellite service in which mobile Earth stations are located on board aircraft; survival craft stations and emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service.
An aeronautical mobile-satellite service intended for communications, including those relating to flight coordination, primarily outside national and international civil air routes.
An aeronautical mobile-satellite service reserved for communications relating to safety and regularity of flight, primarily along national or international civil air routes.
A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate; emergency position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in this service on designated distress and emergency frequencies.
A mobile service not
ARINC. The organization that coordinates the design and management of telecommunications systems for the airline industry. It's one of the largest
A radionavigation-satellite service in which Earth stations are located on board aircraft.
A radionavigation service intended for the benefit and for the safe operation of aircraft.
A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances, an aeronautical station may be located on board ship or on a platform at sea.
Air force publicists coined the term "aerospace" to convince everyone that space was the business of those who fly in the air. According to the Economist Magazine, the "aerospace industry" was quickly accepted into the language, perhaps because President Eisenhower's alternative, the "military industrial complex," sounded rather more sinister. After the Apollo program, which ended in 1972, the "space" in aerospace often seemed like a syllable tacked on to make building airplanes sound grander. But the growth in satellite use in the 1980s made space a respectable business in its own right. In America as of writing in the fall of 1991, the annual sales of space hardware are now bigger than those of civilian aircraft.
Advanced Encryption Standard. A standard for encryption which is intended to replace DES (Data Encryption Standard), a standard developed by IBM in 1977 and thought to be virtually uncrackable until 1997. The AES standard, which is expected to be developed and released in 2000, will be a symmetric, or private key, algorithm. It also will be a block cipher supporting key lengths
Application Entity Title. The
Audio Frequency. The range of frequencies which theoretically are audible to the human ear; i.e., 30 Hz - 20 KHz. Truly high fidelity audio covers the entire range. Full AF is not practical over the PSTN, as to much bandwidth is required. Most of us can't hear the full AF range, anyway. As you get older, your hearing deteriorates. See also Bandwidth.
Assigned Frame. Motorola definition.
As Far As I Know.
Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association. An organization of military communications personnel and suppliers who fulfill the specialized needs of government and military communications. They run a big convention each year in Washington in May-June. www.afcea.org.
See Analog Front End.
An ATM term. Authority and Format Identifier: This identifier is part of the network level address header.
This definition from the Telecommunications Act of 1996. The term 'affiliate' means a person that (directly or indirectly) owns or controls, is owned or controlled by, or is under common ownership or control with, another person. For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'own' means to own an equity interest (or the equivalent thereof) of more than 10 percent. See the Telecommunications Act Of 1996.
A broadcast TV station not owned by a network, but one which includes the network's programs and commercials in its programming schedule.
ASA. A term for a company which resells the service of a phone company. Typically, the phone company pays the ASA a commission. Sometimes the commission is so large that it blurs the thinking of the ASA into
Sites that steer user to another e-commerce site in return for a piece of the action, i.e. a percentage of any buy. Go to my site, www.harrynewton.com. There you'll find a button that suggests you buy this dictionary via ecommerce. Click on the button. It gets you to Amazon. If you buy the dictionary, I get 7% of what you paid from Amazon. I'm an Amazon sales affiliate.
Authority and Format Identifier. The portion of an NSAP format ATM address that identifies the type and format of the IDI portion of an ATM address. See also IDI and NSAP.
American Federation of Information Processing Societies. A national, highly- respected organization formed by data processing
Requirements of an MPLS traffic engineering tunnel on the attributes of the links it will cross. The tunnel's affinity bits and affinity mask bits of the tunnel must match the attribute bits of the various links carrying the tunnel.
Authority and Format Identifier. The part of an NSAP-format ATM address that identifies the type and the format of the IDI portion of an ATM address. See also IDI and NSAP.
All Fiber Network. Burlington, Vermont is building an AFN network for its municipality of 40,000 people. The AFN will first support city services. Then it will extend fast Internet service to its businesses and residences.
Acronym for Association Francaise de Normalisation. France's national standards-setting organization.
AppleTalk File Protocol. Apple's network protocol, used to provide access between file servers and
Andrew File System.
Automatic Fine Tuning; See AFC.
The time an employee spends completing a transaction after the call has been disconnected. Sometimes it's a few seconds. Sometimes it can be minutes. Depends on what the caller wants.
Trading in the Initial Public Offering after its IPO offering. Trading volume in IPOs is extremely high on the first day because of flipping (immediate selling) and aftermarket orders.
Automatic Gain Control. There are two electronic ways you can control the recording of something ” Manual or Automatic Gain Control (AGC). AGC is an electronic circuit in tape
US Department of Agriculture's voice and data communications network.
A data packet which has exceeded its maximum predefined node visit count or time in the network.
A list, outline, or plan of things to be
The classic definition of an agent is an entity acting on
This term comes from the huge telephone call-in reservation centers which the airlines, hotels and car rental services run. An agent is the person who answers your call, takes your order or answers your question. Agents are also called Telephone Sales Representatives or Communicators. The term "agent" was first used in the airline business. It came from gate or counter ticket agent.
An "Agent" is the person or persons you have legally authorized to order your telephone service and equipment from telephone companies.
In the computer programming sense of the word, an agent acts on behalf of another person or thing, with delegated authority. The agent's goals are those of the entity that created it. An agent is an active object with a mission, but agents are abstractions that can be implemented in any way, whereas an object has a formal definition.
Business Week in its February 14, 1994 issue wrote, "It's what computer scientists call an 'agent' ” a kind of software program that's powerful and autonomous enough to do what all good robots should: help the harried
Windows 95 Resource Kit defined agent slightly differently. It said that an agent was software that runs on a client computer for use by administrative software running on a server. Agents are typically used to support administrative actions, such as detecting system information or running services.
See also Bot.
A call center term. Agents begin their day by
A feature which allows any ACD agent to occupy any position in the ACD without losing his or her personal identity. Statistics are collected and consolidated about this agent and calls are routed to this agent no matter where he sits or how many
A telephone company AIN term. An AMA record generated to record multiple instances of service usage within a specified aggregation interval. It is created by formatting peg counts of AMA events.
The total bandwidth of channel carrying a multiplexed bit stream. It includes the payload and the overhead. For example, a T-1 line has an aggregate full duplex bandwidth of 1.544 million bits per second.
The sum of the channel data rates for a given application.
An AMA (Automatic Message Accounting) function that accumulates AMA data, resulting in a less than detailed AMA record.
An ATM term. Token A number assigned to an outside link by the border nodes at the ends of the outside link. The same number is associated with all uplinks and induced uplinks associated with the outside link. In the parent and all higher-level peer groups, all uplinks with the same aggregation token are aggregated.
A specialized ISDN terminal adapter that can aggregate, or bond, the two B channels "on the fly" into a single higher-speed connection. Some aggregation devices also include an Ethernet bridge, i.e. a connection to a local area network.
A breed of long distance reseller. An aggregator is
"What about the pitfalls? There are some: First, don't buy long distance that isn't billed directly by the long distance carrier providing the service. If the aggregator does the billing, there's too much opportunity for "mischief," says Dick Kuehn, Cleveland consultant. "There's opportunity for doing things like increasing each of your calls by 30 seconds. And because a user has no answer supervision on his call detail records, it's very hard for the user to figure his exact timing." The problem, says Dick, is there's no way for a user to verify his own bill. Dick says "Carriers are honest. Resellers (aggregators that bill) are open to question."
Dick also believes you probably shouldn't deal with an aggregator who bills you a percentage of "savings." This is also open to abuse. There are so many rates, so many changes monthly, so many options that it's virtually
The panoply of companies in the long distance business ” not only aggregators ” has expanded dramatically. And confusion between companies and what they did became rife. All, of course, purport to save you money on your long distance bills. And many do. Here's a simple explanation of the major categories:
FACILITIES BASED CARRIER. Owns most of its circuits. Has own sales force and possibly independent sales agents. Best examples: AT&T, WorldCom, Allnet and Sprint.
TRADITIONAL RESELLER. Rents/leases most circuits or buys bulk time from carrier. Resells under own brand name, has published prices, sends own bills. Appears to be (and for all practical purposes is) same as the carriers.
AGGREGATOR. "Sponsor" who buys carrier's (typically AT&T) multi-location 800 or outbound service; enrolls other businesses as sites; volume discounts for all based on total calling at all sites. End user is still the carrier's, not the aggregator's. The carrier typically does the billing.
REBILLER: (Also called "Switchless Reseller"). Buys service as multi-location customer from carrier. Signs up individual sites (just like aggregator). Generates own end-user bills. No switch or network, but does sales, customer service, billing for long distance calls. Sometimes the rebiller's bills are more detailed than the bills you get directly from the carrier.
SALES AGENTS: Businesses or groups who are not direct
OTHER THIRD-PARTY MARKETERS. Buying co-ops, user groups, long distance
The connection mode that eliminates several steps during internet key exchange authentication negotiation) between two or more IPsec peers. Aggressive mode is faster than main mode but not as secure. See IPsec, IKE.
The change in properties of a material with time under specific conditions.
According to several dictionary definitions, which I have blended together, an agnostic is a person who holds the view that any ultimate reality, or absolute truth, (i.e., God) is unknown and probably unknowable. An agnostic is neither a believer nor a non- believer (i.e., atheist), but just isn't committed either way, since, in his opinion, there's no way to know the truth for sure. The term generally
Accelerated Graphics Port. An Intel-developed interface that enables high-speed graphics. Graphics data move between the PC's graphics controller and computer memory directly, instead of being cached in video memory. An interface specification that enables 3-D graphics to display quickly on ordinary personal computers. AGP is designed to
Assisted Global Positioning System. See GPS.
Application Generator ToolKit. A set of tools that are used to implement and modify a voice-processing application. It includes software to create the script and packages for the creation and editing of prompts. See Application Generator.
Authentication Header Protocol. A protocol used in IPSec that authenticates a packet IP header and payload (content). If a packet is modified during transmission, the recipient is notified. See IPSec.
Audio High Density. System of digital audio recording on grooveless discs,
ATM-attached Host Functional Group: The group of functions performed by an ATM- attached host that supports the ATM Forum's specification for MPOA (Multiprotocol over ATM).
Abbreviation for ampere hour, measurement of battery power: how much current may be drawn for an
Average Handle Time. The amount of time an employee is occupied with an incoming call. This is the sum of talk time and after-call-work time. Contrast with Average Holding Time.
See Average Holding Time.
Average Handle Time Distribution. A set of factors (either 48 or 96) for each day of the week that defines the typical distribution of average handle times throughout the day. Each factor measures how far AHT in the half or quarter hour deviates from the AHT for day as a whole.
Artificial Intelligence. Perhaps the next phase of computing. The present forms of AI in computer software are called Expert or Knowledge Based systems.
An ATM term. Signaling ID assigned by Exchange A.
An M.100/S.100 definition. Application Interface Adapter: a component providing the client side of a client server connection to an S.100 server. See M.100 and S.100.
Automatic Internal Administration.
American Institute of Architects.
Automatic Incoming Call Connection. A Rolm term for connecting an incoming call to the person's phone, without requiring him/her to press any keys.
A Trojan Horse software program (a virus) which caused
Audio Interchange File Format. This audio file format was developed by Apple Computer for storing high-quality sampled audio and musical instrument information. It is also used by Silicon Graphics and in several professional audio packages. Played by a variety of downloadable software on both the PC and the Mac. See also ADPCM, PCM, sound, TrueSpeech, VOC, WAV and waveform.
Association for Information and Image Management.
Amplitude Intensity Modulation.
Association for Interactive Media. Originally called the Interactive Television Association (ITA). The AIM is a Washington association of companies and organizations involved with interactive media. According to the AIM CEO, "ITA has long been the indus- try's most forceful proponents of the view that high speed Internet and interactive television development are so interrelated that, from the customer's perspective, these services will be seamless." www.interactive hq.org.
An Acronym for Auto Indexing Mass Storage. Indicates the AIMS Specification which is a standard card interface for storing large data such as image and multimedia files.
ATM Inverse Multiplexing: A device that allows multiple T-1 or E1 communications facilities to be combined into a single broadband facility for the transmission of ATM cells.
Advanced Intelligent Network. A now somewhat obsolete term. AIN was based on circuit switching, not on today's more modern packet switching. AIN was a term promoted by Bellcore (now Telcordia) and adopted by Bellcore's original
Signal Control Points. SCPs. Computers that hold databases in which customer-specific information used by the network to route calls is stored.
Signal Switching Points. SSPs. Digital telephone switches, which can talk to SCPs and ask them for customer-specific instructions as to how the call should be completed.
Signal Transfer Points. STPs. Packet switches that shuttle messages between SSPs and SCPs.
All three communicate via out of band signaling, typically using Signaling System 7 (SS7) protocol. The AIN has increased in complexity, as carriers have added voice response equipment that can prompt
Among the IN (Intelligent Network) services, some manufacturers including Ericsson has identified:
Enhanced number translation services functions
Enhanced screening services, i.e. selective call
Selective forwarding of calls * Location-dependent call forwarding
Improvements to voice announcements
Services to support fixed and mobile integration, i.e. personal communications services, PCS and universal personal telecommunications, UPT, and
See AIN definitions below and NCD, SCP, SiteRP, SS7, SSP and STP.
Advanced Intelligent Network Release defined by individual Bell Operating Companies for initial deployment in 1991, or so. See AIN.
Advanced Intelligent Network Release based on Ameritech specifications with input from Telcordia and some
Advanced Intelligent Network Release provides for some additional functionality and more extensions to Rel 0.0. Contains 5 trigger detection points. See AIN.
Advanced Intelligent Network Release target architecture for AIN. Contains 32 trigger detection points. (Hence Rel 0.0 & 0.1). See AIN.
For Bell Operating Companies, the logical network resources configured and updated to provide Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1 subscriber services (e.g., SLP and trigger data). See AIN.
An access tandem, local tandem or end office that contains an ASC (Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1 Switch Capabilities) functional group. See AIN.
An Advanced Intelligent Network Release for initial deployment in 1995, evolving from AIN Release 1 and supporting an expanded range of information networking services from the Bell operating telephone companies. See AIN.
ASC. A functional group residing in an Advanced Intelligent Network Release 1 Switching System that contains the Network Access, Service Switching, Information Management, Service Assistance and Operations FEs (Functional Entities). See AIN.
Automated INTercept Call Completion. A new feature of Northern Telecom's central offices. The AINTCC feature provides options for connecting a caller automatically to an intercepted number after hearing an announcement, or connecting a caller to an intercepted number without an announcement. Not using an announcement makes the number change transparent to the caller. The called (intercepted) party then has the option of informing the caller of the number change.
Automatic Identification of Outward Dialing is the ability of the telephone system to know the specific extension placing a call. It's used as part of the process of recording the detail of each telephone call for billback and cost control purposes. See AIOD Leads and Call Accounting System.
Terminal equipment leads used solely to transmit automatic identified outward dialing (AIOD) data from a PBX to the public switched telephone network or to switched service networks (e.g., EPSDS), so that a vendor can provide a detailed monthly bill identifying long-distance usage by individual PBX extensions, tie-trunks, or the attendant.
An ATM term. Additive Increase Rate: An ABR service parameter, AIR controls the rate at which the cell transmission rate
A form of coaxial cable which uses air as a dielectric.
ABF. Small, flexible plastic microduct tubing installed prior to the installation of individual or multiple optical fibers that are "blown in" through the microduct using compressed air. Fibers can travel 300 meters (1,000 ft) or more in a single run or
In the Department of Defense, air conditioning is a synonym for the term "environmental control," which is the process of
Nathan Oldacre, who works for ITC^Deltacom, sent me this: Air Gap Termination is a term we have used quite a bit at our company. This phrase is used whenver something gets unplugged by
A designated area, closed or open, used for environmental air circulation (return air). For a larger explanation, see Plenum.
Air interface is a cellular industry term. It refers to the system that ensures compatibility between equipment (cell phones) and the base stations. It involves the specification of channel frequencies and widths, modulation, power and power sensitivity levels, and data framing. The system also selects which radio channels are employed during a call. Air interface is the standard operating system of a mobile network. A four- layer protocol stack which ensures compatibility between terminal equipment and base stations, or hubs, through the development of a standard. In terms of the OSI Reference Model, the layers include the Physical (PHY), the Media Access Control (MAC) layer, the Data Link Control (DLC) layer, and the Network layer. The PHY layer specifies radio characteristics such as channel frequencies and widths, modulation schemes, power and power sensitivity levels, and data framing. The MAC layer, which cuts across the PHY and DLC layers, specifies the procedures by which the wireless terminal and the base station negotiate selection of the radio channel to be employed. The DLC layer specifies the manner in which the
Air pressure at sea level is
Telephone cable equipped with air-pressure equipment so the phone company can determine when there's a problem with the line. When a cable is cut, the pressure drops and the company is notified of the problem. Nitrogen is often used instead of air because nitrogen is noncorrosive. Nitrogen also
The right of a landowner to protection of access to light and air above a structure. Air rights have value in many cities and can be sold. They might be sold, for example, to an adjoining building which can then build higher and bigger.
One in which air is the essential dielectric material. A spirally wound synthetic filament of spacer may be used to center the conductor.
Time spent talking on a cellular network to calculate billing. See also Airtime.
Airborne equipment used to relay radio transmission from selected originating transmitters.
A technique employing aircraft fitted with radio relay stations for the purpose of increasing the range, flexibility, or physical security of communications systems.
A computer imaging term. A fine-mist paint tool used to create
A mobile Earth station in the aeronautical mobile-satellite service located on board an aircraft.
An international aeronautical emergency frequency, such as 121.5 MHz (civil) and 243.0 MHz (military), for aircraft stations and stations concerned with safety and regulation of flight along national or international civil air routes and maritime mobile service stations authorized to communicate for safety purposes.
A mobile station in the aeronautical mobile service, other than a survival craft station, located on board an aircraft.