Every project is implemented within a certain type of home organization. This is true even for project organizations that are set up
One of the strongest factors
Of the three types of organizations, the functional and the project represent the extremes in the range of possible variants from the aspect of a lack of or an excess of project orientation. All the organizations that fit in between the two extremes can be determined by a certain type of a matrix organization: from weak through balanced to strong.
There are a number of other organizational factors that influence project implementation. Organizational culture and accepted practices set up standards for a project manager in order to be most successful. Organizational systems, including the way a company is managed and the way the company's services are organized, also have a great influence on projects. Of course, the projects can best be implemented within an organizational system that is project-oriented. When this system is not in place and all the projects have to be carried out within certain general systems, it sometimes requires the project to develop parallel internal systems of expense collection, work hours reporting, and so on.
Of course, the organization that has offices in different
As much as projects are being influenced by their organizations, they in
Any change event can be efficient only if the implementation takes into consideration and keeps a
. Introducing any change will always be related to overcoming the inertia of the old type of thinking and the old way of doing things. This is
Organizational Sphere . Even when the change is not directly related to global structural change, it inevitably results in developing new or getting rid of the old organizational relations and elements. Therefore it is important to provide harmonic interaction and balancing of all the old and new elements both during the change and after it.
Technical Sphere . The technological sphere of production and management processes is important because it also changes during the process. We must consider the technical support required by the change itself.
Even if the change is occurring in only one of the three spheres, it always influences the other two.
Any changes normally have to
The major causes for the reluctance of personnel to endorse change include:
Fear of the unknown.
Traditional thinking—"If something works, don't change it."
Lack of understanding of why a change is needed in the first place.
Lack of belief in successful change—especially if such efforts have been undertaken and failed in the past.
In order to combat the resistance, it is important to remember how difficult it may be to implement the best-planned change event because of the resistance of the personnel involved.
The other important activities that have to be undertaken in order to reduce stress and increase
Informing: Telling everybody what is going to be changed and why it is necessary.
Explaining how the things that will be changed will be better,
Explaining that the changes will not hurt—at least not those
Acting from Inside: Finding and supporting the change advocates at all levels of the organization.
Finding and supporting the leaders who are ready for change—formal as well as informal, indicating the
The change process does not happen at once. It normally has four phases:
. When people act as if they are "thunderstruck," it is often seen as no reaction at all to the change event to come and can be wrongly interpreted by management as no resistance. If, due to this misunderstood
. When people realize that the changes have started, they enter a stress condition characterized by strong feelings of fear, threat, and anger. This is very often a failure spot for changes; therefore the management reaction should be very careful and include lots of
Understanding . Once the second phase is past, people start entering the third phase of understanding. This is when the employees start understanding the nature of the change, its necessity, and its positive impacts. The level of stress decreases and the stress changes to a less dangerous type. It is important for management to move into explanations of everyone's roles and functions in the change process and the new structure.
. If phase three is carried out correctly, the last phase of acceptance
Any organizational change is related to the transformation of the company's organizational structure. The scope of this transformation has to be
The process of forming the vision of a new organization is called organizational planning.
The goals and objectives of organizational planning are:
To set up the scope of transition in the organizational sphere
To get the organization into a position of primary correspondence to the company's new strategy
To determine responsibilities, accountability, and reporting structure
To provide liaison and efficient coordination between departments/divisions
Organizational planning is to be carried out in the following major spheres:
Structure: Functions, processes, work groups, hierarchy levels, personnel structure, and accountability
Decision-Making and Responsibilities:
The processes of making key decisions,
Roles, Assumptions, and Job Functions:
Key organizational roles, distributing responsibilities for implementing groups of work, and determining
Planning Working Groups/Divisions: Determining related tasks and resources needed for organizational functioning
Setting Up Result Indicators: Development of and monitoring success indicators for personnel, groups, divisions, and business as a whole
Development Mechanisms: Mechanisms for developing personnel, technical sphere, management systems, etc.