The concept of job enlargement was developed as a result of the investigations
The concept proved to be
The job enrichment concept was developed based on the experiment carried out by the Swedish Volvo company in the 1960s. The management of Volvo decided to try discontinuing one of its assembly lines and instead
Based on the results of the experiment, it was decided that the increased opportunities for creative work increased the level of responsibility and ownership. The ability to see the final product made the
This approach is strongly reflected in modern project management methodology, where the systems of delegation and increased involvement of the team members in all phases of the project are
The role structure of the team determines the content and distribution of different roles within the team. The knowledge and ability to use the structure of roles within the team is a strong and efficient instrument of human resource management in the project team.
There are three major types of roles we can see in the team: creative roles, communicative roles, and behavioral roles. Normally each member of the team has some of each of the three types.
of a team member characterizes his or her active position in the problem solving process, search for alternatives, and other actions
Below we present the most typical creative, communication-oriented, and behavior-oriented roles of the team
Idea Generator: A team member who generates principal ideas, sets up key problems, suggests alternative decisions, etc.
Idea Compiler: A team member who develops fundamental ideas into practical solutions that are capable of uniting different ideas.
Erudite: A team member who has knowledge of a wide range of problems in the past and in the present.
Expert: A team member who is capable of evaluating the advisability of the idea and able to give correct advice in the course of a discussion.
A team member who is capable of
Critic: A team member who analyzes the performance and results of team work giving critical, often negative, evaluation of the ideas presented.
Organizer: A team member who organizes work that unites the work of different team members with the final result of achievement.
Leader: A team member with high personal and professional authority who influences both the team as a whole and its individual members.
A team member who carries out the important routine work of registering ideas,
A team member who carries out informal interpersonal linking of conflicting group members by providing external
Watchman: A team member who distributes and controls the information flow, evaluating the importance of the message and getting it all the way through to the leader.
Coordinator: A team member who carries out the coordination of different team members' activities with the final result of achievement when in contact with the leader.
A team member who knows the structure of the organization very well and
Optimist: A person who is always certain about the success of the project, finds ways to get out of crisis situations, and inspires the other team members.
A person who is always
A person who
Dogmatist: A person who holds to known norms, holds her own opinion to the end, and does not agree with rational group decisions.
Commentator: A person who comments about the events happening within the project, people's lives, or outside project environment.
A person who collects and
Fighter for Truth: A person who carries and represents social, moral, organizational philosophy and human rights. Can play both progressive and regressive roles.
Public Person: A person who is strongly involved with public work and often dreams of different public "activities" to be carried out during work time. Does not consider his project responsibilities seriously enough.
A person who
"Orphan": A person who searches for understanding and sympathy, complaining about his loneliness and his lack of understanding from the other team members and management.
A person who normally is irritated by
"All for Himself": A person who conducts personal business at work using his work position.
Loafer: A person who shows very little activity at work, does only minor work, and achieves very little.
A person who is a glorious man with a high feeling of self-importance, who dreams of taking over the leadership position, and who
Knowing the roles of the team members not only allows the manager to use the human resources of the project
In order to strongly improve the productivity of the team during the group activities such as meetings and team briefings, it is important to choose a number of typical, most important roles that need to be represented in order for the work of a group to be efficient. Among the roles described above, the key ones may include organizer, idea generator, critic, expert, liaison, and recorder.
The University of California at La Jolla
Handbook for Group Facilitators
also suggests pointing out target achieving roles and supportive roles for