Mobile Commerce Applications - page 18


SUMMARY

The emerging wireless and mobile networks have extended electronic commerce to another research and application subject: mobile commerce. A mobile commerce system involves a range of disciplines and technologies. This level of complexity makes understanding and constructing a mobile commerce system an arduous task. To facilitate this process, this chapter divided a mobile commerce system into six components , which can be summarized as follows :

  1. Mobile commerce applications: Electronic commerce applications are already broad. Mobile commerce applications not only cover the existing applications but also include new applications, which can be performed at any time and from anywhere by using mobile computing technology.

  2. Mobile stations: Mobile stations are limited by their small screens, limited memory, limited processing power, and low battery power and suffer from wireless network transmission problems. Numerous mobile stations , such as PDAs or Web-enabled cellular phones, are available in the market, but most use one of three major operating systems: Palm OS, Microsoft Pocket PC, and Symbian OS. At this moment, Palm OS leads the market, although it faces a serious challenge from Pocket PC.

  3. Mobile middleware: WAP and i-mode are the two major kinds of mobile middleware. WAP is widely adopted and flexible, while i-mode has the highest number of users and is easy to use. It is difficult to predict which middleware will be the eventual winner in the end; it is more likely that the two will be blended somehow at some point in the future.

  4. Wireless and wired networks: Wireless communication capability supports mobility for end users in mobile commerce systems. Wireless LAN, MAN, and WAN are major components used to provide radio communication channels so that mobile service is possible. In the WLAN category, the Wi-Fi standard with 11 Mbps throughput dominates the current market. It is expected that standards with much higher transmission speeds, such as IEEE 802.11a and 802.11g, will replace Wi-Fi in the near future. Compared to WLANs, cellular systems can provide longer transmission distances and greater radio coverage but suffer from the drawback of much lower bandwidth (less than 1 Mbps). In the latest trend for cellular systems, 3G standards supporting wireless multimedia and high-bandwidth services are beginning to be deployed. WCDMA and CDMA2000 are likely to dominate the market in the future.

  5. Host computers: Host computers process and store all the information needed for mobile commerce applications, and most application programs can be found here. They include three major components: Web servers, database servers, and application programs and support software.

Another important issue for mobile commerce is mobile security and payment. Mobile commerce systems can prosper only if information can be securely exchanged among end systems (consumers and vendors ). Security issues (including payment) include data reliability, integrity, confidentiality, and authentication and are usually an important part of implementation in wireless protocols/systems. Solutions are updated frequently due to the lack of a comprehensive wireless security infrastructure and standard. A unified approach has not yet emerged.



REFERENCES

Ashley, P., Hinton, H., & Vandenwauver, M. ( 2001 ). Wired versus wireless security: The Internet, WAP and iMode for e-commerce . In Proceedings of Annual Computer Security Applications Conferences .

Balakrishnan, H., Seshan, S., Amir, E., & Katz, R. ( 1995 ). Improving TCP/IP performance over wireless networks . In Proceedings of the 1st ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking .

Biryukov, A., Shamir, A., & Wagner, D. ( 2000 ). Real time cryptanalysis of A5/1 on a PC . In Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Fast Software Encryption .

Borisov, N., Goldberg, I., & Wagner, D. ( 2001 ). Intercepting mobile communications: The insecurity of 802.11 . In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking .

Caceres, R., & Iftode, L. ( 1996 ). Improving the performance of reliable transport protocols in mobile computing environment . In T. Imielinski & H. Korth (Eds.), Mobile computing ( pp. 207 ‚ 228 ). Kluwer Academic .

Eurotechnology. ( n.d. ) Frequently asked questions about NTT-DoCoMo's i-mode . Retrieved December 16, 2002 , from http://www.eurotechnology.com/imode/faq.html

Fluhrer, S., Martin, I., & Shamir, A. ( 2001 ). Weakness in the key scheduling algorithm of RC4 . In Proceedings of the 8th Annual Workshop on Selected Areas in Cryptography .

Geihs, K. ( 2001 ). Middleware challenges ahead. IEEE Computer , 34 ( 6 ), 24 ‚ 31 .

Gordon, P., & Gebauer, J. ( 2001 ). M-commerce: Revolution + inertia = evolution (Working Paper 01-WP-1038). Berkeley : University of California, Berkeley . Internet Engineering Task Force. ( 2003, February 19 ).

IP routing for wireless/mobile hosts (mobileip) . Retrieved November 6, 2002 , from http://www.ietf.org/html. charters /mobileip-charter.html

Jakobsson, M., & Wetzel, S. ( 2001 ). Security weaknesses in Bluetooth . In Topics in Cryptography: CT-RSA 2001 ( pp. 176 ‚ 191 ). Berlin, Germany : Springer-Verlag .

Jin, L., Ren, S., Feng, L., & Hua, G. Z. ( 2002 ). Research on WAP clients supports SET payment protocol . IEEE Wireless Communications , 9 ( 1 ), 90 ‚ 95 .

Leavitt, N. ( 2000 ). Will WAP deliver the wireless Internet ? IEEE Computer , 34 ( 5 ), 16 ‚ 20 .

Leavitt, N. ( 2003 ). Will wireless gaming be a winner ? IEEE Computer , 36 ( 1 ), 24 ‚ 27 .

Mobile computing. ( 2002, September 1 ). PC Technology Guide . Retrieved November 2, 2002 , from http://www.pctechguide.com/25mobile.htm

MSC to BS interface inter-operability specification. ( 1999 ). CDMA Development Group . CDG-IOS v. 3.1.1.

Ortiz, S., Jr. ( 2000 ). Embedded databases come out of hiding. IEEE Computer , 33 ( 3 ), 16 ‚ 19 .

Pahlavan, K., & Krishnamurthy, P. ( 2002 ). Principles of wireless networks: A unified approach . Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall PTR .

PalmSource. ( n.d. ). Why Palm OS is #1 . Retrieved December 22, 2002 , from http://www.palmsource.com/ palmos /

Sadeh, N. ( 2002 ). M-commerce: Technologies, services, and business models . New York : Wiley .

Saha, S., Jamtgaard, M., & Villasenor, J. ( 2001 ). Bringing the wireless Internet to mobile devices . IEEE Computer , 34 ( 6 ), 54 ‚ 58 .

Stubblefield, A., Ioannidis, J., & Rubin, A. D. ( 2002 ). Using the Fluhrer, Martin, and Shamir attack to break WEP . In Proceedings of the Network and Distributed Systems Security Symposium .

Tanenbaum, A. S. ( 2002 ). Computer networks ( 4th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall PTR .

UTRAN overall description. ( 1999 ). 3GPP . TS25.401 v3.3.0, R-99, RAN WG3, 1999 .

Varshney, U., Vetter, R. J., & Kalakota, R. ( 2000 ). Mobile commerce: A new frontier . IEEE Computer , 33 ( 10 ), 32 ‚ 38 .

Vriendt, J. D., Lain ƒ , P., Lerouge, C., & Xu, X. ( 2002 ). Mobile network evolution: A revolution on the move . IEEE Communications Magazine , 40 ( 4 ), 104 ‚ 111 .

Yankee Group . ( 2002, September 10 ). Over 50% of large U.S. enterprises plan to implement a wireless/mobile solution by 2003, reveals Yankee Group . Retrieved December 10, 2002 , from http://www.yankeegroup.com/public/news_releases/news_release_detail.jsp?ID=PressReleases/news_09102002_wmec.htm

The Yankee Group publishes U.S. mobile commerce forecast . ( 2001, October 31 ). Reuters . Retrieved December 16, 2002 , from http://about.reuters.com/newsreleases/art_31-10-2001_id765.asp

Yavatkar, R., & Bhagawat, N. ( 1994 ). Improving end-to-end performance of TCP over mobile internetworks . In Proceedings of the Workshop on Mobile Computing and Applications .