Molecular Computing - page 82


Index

N

NAG (N-acetylglucosamine), in linear recognition, 43

Negative image enhancement, 119

Negative (molecular) recognition, 35

Neural networks. See also Belousov-Zhabotinsky system

chemically implemented, example of, 136-138

with lateral connections, 103-104

shunting on-center off-surround feedback networks, analogy with reaction-diffusion systems, 106

with sigmoidal feedback, signal processing of, 104-105

Neutral molecules, in molecular recognition, 40-41

Nonlinear chemical medium, in reaction-diffusion system, 64. See also Belousov-Zhabotinsky system

Nonstirred reagent layer, 66

NP-complete. See Hamiltonian Path Problem; Maximal clique problem



Index

O

One-dimensional breather machines. See Cellular automata, one-dimensional; DNA, breather waves in

Optical memories. See 3D (optical) memories

Organic synthesis used in nanoscale engineering, 197-198



Index

P-Q

Quantum effects in molecular devices, 196-197

effects on reliability, 199-200

Palladium processor, as example of chemical computer doing image processing, 68-69

logical gates implemented with, 75-76

Particle guns, 81

PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction

Percolation thresholds, using reaction-diffusion to investigate, 141

Phase waves, velocity of, 125

Photonic molecular devices, 49-51

Plane subdivision, using chemical processor for, 67-68

Pocket, in molecular recognition, 35

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 160, 161, 162

sources of error in, 178

used in construction of site-specific mutations, 212-213

Polymer matrices

use of in encapsulating enzymes in biosensors, 228-229

use of in reaction-diffusion systems, 142-144

Positive image enhancement, 119

Positive (molecular) recognition, 35

Prairie fire transformation, 111. See also Grass-fire transformation

Problem size, xiv, 94-95

Programmed chain reaction, 168-171

Programmed mutagenesis. See DNA computing, algorithms



Index

R

Reaction-diffusion processors

cells of, as primitive processors, 102-103

definition of, 64

Reaction-diffusion paradigm, as possible explanation of human behavior, 85-87

as example of non-von Neumann system, 92

Reaction-diffusion systems. See also Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

arsenic-iodide system, 136

chlorite-iodine system, 134-138

equivalence to neural networks, 104, 106, 107

human brain, analogy with, 147-148

simulations of, 138-141

Receptor, definition of, 34

Reliability of molecular electronics, estimation of, 199-201

Respiration process, energy liberation in, 221-222

River quality monitoring using microbial sensors, 241

RNA editing, in cells, 181-182

Robots, reaction-diffusion system used as unconventional controller for, 70-72

artificial cilia, 72-73

coupling with nonstandard actuators, 71-72

light-seeking, explanation of using diffusion waves as controller for, 71



Index

S

Saccharide sensors. See Biosensors, saccharide sensors

Satellite pictures, image processing of, 119

Scheibe aggregates, 80

Scroll waves, 145

Segmentation of image, 116

Self-assembly, 52-56

of self-sorting helicates, 54-55

Self-organization, in molecular systems, 52

Self-replication in molecular systems, 58

Sequential one-photon memory. See 3D (optical) memories, sequential one-photon

Shortest path in a labyrinth, using Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction to determine, 121-133

Signal amplification, in chiral system, 54

Simulations, of reaction-diffusion systems, 85-87, 138-141

Simultaneous two-photon memory. See 3D (optical) memories, simultaneous two photon

Single-molecular bit, possibility of, 200-201

Skeletonization of image using chemical computers, 68-70, 116

Spherical recognition, molecular, 38-39

size discrimination in, 38

Spiral waves, 145

Spots on the skin of a cat, image restoration of, 120-121

Staggered extension process (StEP) in DNA manipulation, 217

Static results from a Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, using precipitate in skeletonizing, 69

Stationary circuit, examples of chemical-based logical gates

kinetic, 74

waves in excitable media, 75

Stirred-tank reactors. See Continuous-flow stirred tank reactors

Structural complexity. See Complexity, structural

Substrate, definition of, 34

Symport, in membrane transport, 49