Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2007 (Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment) - page 2

Editors: McPhee, Stephen J.; Papadakis, Maxine A.; Tierney, Lawrence M.

Title: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment, 46th Edition

Copyright ©2007 McGraw-Hill

> Front of Book > Editors

Edited by

Stephen J. McPhee MD

Professor of Medicine

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

Maxine A. Papadakis MD

Professor of Clinical Medicine; Associate Dean for Student Affairs

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

Senior Editor

Lawrence M. Tierney Jr. MD

Professor of Medicine

University of California, San Francisco; Associate Chief of Medical Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco

With Associate Authors

Secondary Editors

This book was set by Silverchair Science + Communications, Inc.

Jason O. Malley

Editor

Harriet Lebowitz

Editor

Barbara Holton

Editor

Phil Galea

Production Supervisor

Charissa Baker

Illustration Manager

Mary McKeon

Cover Designer

The index was prepared by Kathy Pitcoff

RR Donnelley was printer and binder

Authors

Daniel C. Adelman MD

Adjunct Professor of Medicine

Division of Allergy and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco

dadelman@sunesis.com

Allergic & Immunologic Disorders; CMDT Online only—Basic Immunology

Joshua S. Adler MD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Medical Director, Ambulatory Care, UC San Francisco Medical Center

josh.adler@ucsf.edu

Preoperative Evaluation & Perioperative Management

Michael J. Aminoff MD, DSc, FRCP

Professor of Neurology

University of California, San Francisco; Attending Physician, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco

aminoffm@neurology.ucsf.edu

Nervous System

David M. Barbour PharmD, BCPS

Adjunct Clinical Faculty

School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver; Lead Pharmacist, Acute Care, University of Colorado Hospital, Denver

david.barbour@uch.edu

Drug References

Robert B. Baron MD, MS

Professor of Medicine; Associate Dean for Graduate and Continuing Medical Education; Vice Chief and Director

Educational Programs, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

baron@medicine.ucsf.edu

Lipid Abnormalities; Nutrition

Thomas Bashore MD

Professor of Medicine; Director of Cardiology Fellowship Program

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

thomas.bashore@duke.edu

Heart

Timothy G. Berger MD

Professor of Clinical Dermatology

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco

bergert@derm.ucsf.edu

Skin, Hair, & Nails

Brian M. Berman MD

Professor of Family Medicine and Director

Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

bberman@compmed.umm.edu

Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Peter R. Carroll MD, FACS

Professor and Chair

Department of Urology; Ken and Donna Derr-Chevron Distinguished Professor; University of California, San Francisco

pcarroll@urology.ucsf.edu

Urology

Henry F. Chambers MD

Professor of Medicine

University of California, San Francisco; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital

hchambers@medsfgh.ucsf.edu

Infectious Diseases: Bacterial & Chlamydial

Mark S. Chesnutt MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Chief, Critical Care, Portland Veterans Affairs Medicine Center

chesnutm@ohsu.edu

Lung

Peter V. Chin-Hong MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine; Co-leader

Doris Duke Clinical Research Fellowship for Medical Students, University of California, San Francisco; Attending Physician, Positive Health Practice, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California

phong@php.ucsf.edu

General Problems in Infectious Diseases

Richard Cohen MD, MPH

Clinical Professor

Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

rcohenmd@pacbell.net

Disorders Due to Physical Agents

William R. Crombleholme MD

Professor of Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; Chairman, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Stamford Hospital, Stamford, Connecticut

wcrombleholme@stamhealth.org

Obstetrics

Stuart J. Eisendrath MD

Professor of Clinical Psychiatry

University of California, San Francisco

stuart.eisendrath@ucsf.edu

Psychiatric Disorders

Paul A. Fitzgerald MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco

paul.fitzgerald@ucsf.edu

Endocrinology

Lawrence S. Friedman MD

Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Chair, Department of Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton, Massachusetts; Assistant Chief of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

lfriedman@partners.org

Liver, Biliary Tract, & Pancreas

Masafumi Fukagawa MD, PhD, FJSIM, FASN

Associate Professor and Director

Division of Nephrology and Dialysis Center, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan

fukagawa@med.kobe-u.ac.jp

Fluid & Electrolyte Disorders

Rebekah Gardner MD

Fellow

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

rgardner@medicine.ucsf.edu

References

Armando E. Giuliano MD

Chief of Science and Medicine

John Wayne Cancer Institute; Director, Joyce Eisenberg Keefer Breast Center, Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica, California

giulianoa@jwci.org

Breast

Lee Goldman MD, MPH

Executive Vice President for Health and Biomedical Sciences; Dean of the Faculty of Medicine; Dean of the Faculties of Health Sciences; Harold and Margaret Hatch Professor of the University; Professor of Medicine

College of Physicians and Surgeons; Professor of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health; Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York

lgoldman@columbia.edu

Preoperative Evaluation & Perioperative Management

Robert S. Goldsmith MD, MPH, DTM&H

Professor Emeritus of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco

robert.goldsmith@ucsf.edu

Infectious Diseases: Protozoal & Helminthic

Antonio D. Gomez MD

Fellow

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco

agomez@medsfgh.ucsf.edu

References

Ralph Gonzales MD, MSPH

Associate Professor of Medicine

Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

ralphg@medicine.ucsf.edu

Common Symptoms

Christopher B. Granger MD

Associate Professor

Department Of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

grang001@mc.duke.edu

Heart

B. Joseph Guglielmo PharmD

Professor and Chair

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco

guglielmoj@pharmacy.ucsf.edu

Anti-Infective Chemotherapeutic & Antibiotic Agents

Jennifer E. Guy MD

Chief Medical Resident

San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

jennifer.guy@ucsf.edu

References

Sadia Haider MD

Clinical Fellow in Family Planning

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of California, San Francisco

haiders@obgyn.ucsf.edu

References

Richard J. Hamill MD

Professor

Division of Infectious Diseases, Departments of Medicine and Molecular Virology & Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

richard.hamill@med.va.gov

Infectious Diseases: Mycotic

G. Michael Harper MD

Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine

Geriatric Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Director of Geriatrics Fellowship Training Program, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California

michael.harper3@med.va.gov

Geriatric Medicine

David B. Hellmann MD, FACP

Aliki Perroti Professor of Medicine; Vice Dean for Johns Hopkins Bayview; Chairman

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

hellmann@jhmi.edu

Arthritis & Musculoskeletal Disorders

Patrick M. Hranitzky MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Duke University Medical Center; Director, Cardiac Electrophysiology, Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina

patrick.hranitzky@duke.edu

Heart

Ellen F. Hughes MD, PhD

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

ehughes@medicine.ucsf.edu

Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Robert K. Jackler MD

Sewall Professor and Chair

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

jackler@stanford.edu

Ear, Nose, & Throat

Bradly P. Jacobs MD, MPH

Chief of Integrative Medicine; Senior Medical Director

Care Division; Revolution Health Group, Washington, District of Columbia

bradly.jacobs@revolution.com

Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Richard A. Jacobs MD, PhD

Clinical Professor of Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

jacobsd@medicine.ucsf.edu

General Problems in Infectious Diseases; Infectious Diseases: Spirochetal; Anti-Infective Chemotherapeutic & Antibiotic Agents

C. Bree Johnston MD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco

bree.johnston@ucsf.edu

Geriatric Medicine

Christopher J. Kane MD, FACS

Associate Professor and Vice-Chair of Urology

University of California, San Francisco

ckane@urology.ucsf.edu

Urology

Michael J. Kaplan MD

Professor

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery; Professor, Neurosurgery and Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California

mjkaplan@stanford.edu

Ear, Nose, & Throat

Mitchell H. Katz MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco; Director of Health, San Francisco Department of Public Health

mitch.katz@sfdph.org

HIV Infection

Jeffrey L. Kishiyama MD

Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine

Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

jeff.kishiyama@ucsf.edu

Allergic & Immunologic Disorders; CMDT Online only—Basic Immunology

Hoonmo L. Koo MD

Infectious Diseases Fellow

Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

koo@bcm.tmc.edu

Infectious Diseases: Viral & Rickettsial

Kiyoshi Kurokawa MD, MACP

Adjunct Professor

Division of Health Policy, Research Center for Advanced Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

kurokawa@is.icc.u-tokai.ac.jp

Fluid & Electrolyte Disorders

C. Seth Landefeld MD

Professor; Chief

Division of Geriatrics; Director, UCSF-Mt. Zion Center on Aging, University of California, San Francisco; Director, Quality Scholars Fellowship Program, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center

sethl@medicine.ucsf.edu

Geriatric Medicine

Jonathan E. Lichtmacher MD

Health Sciences Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry; Associate Director

Adult Psychiatry Clinic, Langley Porter Hospitals and Clinics, University of California, San Francisco

jonathanl@lppi.ucsf.edu

Psychiatric Disorders

Grace A. Lin MD

Fellow

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

glin@medsfgh.ucsf.edu

References

Charles A. Linker MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine; Director

Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, San Francisco

linkerc@medicine.ucsf.edu

Blood

H. Trent MacKay MD, MPH

Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland; Associate Director of Women's Health Services, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland

mackayt@mail.nih.gov

Gynecology

Umesh Masharani MD, MB, MRCP(UK)

Clinical Professor of Medicine

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

umesh.masharani@ucsf.edu

Diabetes Mellitus & Hypoglycemia

Stephen J. McPhee MD

Professor of Medicine

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

smcphee@medicine.ucsf.edu

Approach to the Patient & Health Maintenance

Kenneth R. McQuaid MD

Professor of Clinical Medicine

University of California, San Francisco; Director of Endoscopy, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medicine Center

kenneth.mcquaid@med.va.gov

Alimentary Tract

Louis M. Messina MD

Professor of Surgery

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco

messina@surgery.ucsf.edu

Blood Vessels & Lymphatics

Brent R.W. Moelleken MD, FACS

Assistant Clinical Professor

Division of Plastic Surgery; Attending Physician, University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center; Private Practice in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Beverly Hills, California

drbrent@drbrent.com

Disorders Due to Physical Agents

Gail Morrison MD

Vice Dean for Education; Director of Academic Programs; Professor of Medicine

School of Medicine, Renal-Electrolyte and Hypertension Division, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

morrisog@mail.med.upenn.edu

Kidney

C. Diana Nicoll MD, PhD, MPA

Clinical Professor and Interim Chair

Department of Laboratory Medicine; Associate Dean, University of California, San Francisco; Chief of Staff and Chief, Laboratory Medicine Service, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center

diana.nicoll@med.va.gov

Appendix: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring & Laboratory Reference Ranges; CMDT Online only—Diagnostic Testing & Medical Decision Making

Kent R. Olson MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Pharmacy

University of California, San Francisco; Medical Director, San Francisco Division, California Poison Control System

kent.olson@ucsf.edu

Poisoning

Steven Z. Pantilat MD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Department of Medicine; Director, Palliative Care Service, University of California, San Francisco

stevep@medicine.ucsf.edu

Care at the End of Life

Maxine A. Papadakis MD

Professor of Clinical Medicine and Associate Dean for Student Affairs

School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

papadakm@medsch.ucsf.edu

Fluid & Electrolyte Disorders

Michael Pignone MD, MPH

Associate Professor of Medicine

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

pignone@med.unc.edu

Approach to the Patient & Health Maintenance; CMDT Online only—Diagnostic Testing & Medical Decision-Making

Thomas J. Prendergast MD

Associate Professor of Medicine and Anesthesiology

Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire

thomas.j.prendergast@hitchcock.org

Lung

Reed E. Pyeritz MD, PhD

Professor of Medicine and Genetics; Chief

Division of Medical Genetics, University of Pennsylvania Health System and School of Medicine, Philadelphia

reed.pyeritz@uphs.upenn.edu

Genetic Disorders; CMDT Online only—Basic Genetics

Michael W. Rabow MD

Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco

mrabow@medicine.ucsf.edu

Care at the End of Life

Paul Riordan-Eva FRCS, FRCOphth

Consultant Ophthalmologist

King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Paul.riordan-eva@kingsch.nhs.uk

Eye

Hope S. Rugo MD

Clinical Professor of Medicine and Director

Breast Oncology Clinical Trials Program, University of California, San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center

hrugo@medicine.ucsf.edu

Cancer

Hilary K. Seligman MD, MAS

Assistant Professor of Medicine

San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco

hseligman@medsfgh.ucsf.edu

References

Wayne X. Shandera MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

shandera@bcm.tmc.edu

Infectious Diseases: Viral & Rickettsial

Samuel A. Shelburne MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas

samuels@bcm.tmc.edu

Infectious Diseases: Mycotic

Marshall L. Stoller MD

Professor and Vice Chairman

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco

mstoller@urology.ucsf.edu

Urology

John H. Stone MD, MPH

Associate Professor of Medicine

Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins University; Director, Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center, Baltimore, Maryland

jstone@jhmi.edu

Arthritis & Musculoskeletal Disorders

Michael Sutters MD, MRCP(UK)

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Nephrology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

msutters@jhmi.edu

Systemic Hypertension

Suzanne Watnick MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Director, Dialysis Unit, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

watnicks@ohsu.edu

Kidney

Andrew R. Zolopa MD

Associate Professor of Medicine

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California

azolopa@stanford.edu

HIV Infection