In this chapter, you learned about the challenges and issues of complex networks. You also learned about the need for a
All code listings, figures, and tables presented in this book can be found on the book’s companion CD-ROM.
A complex network consists of multiple networks, connected with each other, using different types of links and a multi-protocol environment.
Because of their multi-protocol architecture, complex networks have more problems as compared to independent LANs and WANs.
Most complex networks have problems pertaining to the backbone network, transmission media, multiple networks and protocols, servers, and internal and external security mechanisms.
There are three troubleshooting methodologies: Cisco hierarchical approach, layered approach and the problem resolution approach.
In the hierarchical approach, you divide the network into three
In the layered troubleshooting approach, you isolate and troubleshoot the problem pertaining to a specific layer
The Data-link layer enables node-to-node delivery of data in a network by converting bit streams received from the Network layer into manageable units.
Problems at the Data-link layer usually pertain to the data loss or corruption. To counter this problem, protocols such as Unrestricted Simplex Protocol, Simplex Stop-and-Wait Protocol, and Sliding Window Protocol are used.
Problems at the Network layer usually pertain to overloading of a specific transmission route, inappropriate subnet topology, dependency of the Network layer on the subnet topology and its number, and network congestion.
To counter problems at the Network layer, the subnet topology should be independent of the Network layer. Similarly, routing algorithms should be used to ensure proper routing of data packets from the source to the destination network.
In the problem resolution approach, you divide the entire troubleshooting process into a set of seven
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Basic Protocol Behavior
A protocol is a set of rules defined to
The benefit of using a protocol for data transmission is that there are fewer