# Time value maps

## Time value maps

### Highlights

• A visual depiction of value-add and non-value-add time in a process

• Gives better impression of overall cycle time than Value-add chart ( see next page)

### To create a time value map …

1. Determine process cycle time

2. Determine queue times (delays) between steps and the value-add time needed to perform each task

3. Draw a timeline and divide into units equal to the total process time

4. Place steps and delays along the timeline in the order in which they happen; use segments proportional to the times

• VA steps go above the line

• Non-value-add goes below the line (think about using different colors for emphasis)

• The white space between boxes indicates queue or delay time

5. Draw in feedback loops and label yield percentages

6. Summarize time use

• Activity vs. non-activity times

### Highlights

• A visual depiction of value-add and non-value-add time in a process

• Does more to illustrate balance of time between process steps; weaker on overall cycle time (compare to time value map on previous page)

• Does not visually emphasize wasted time as strongly as a time value map does but makes it easier to compare steps to each other

### To create a value-add chart …

2. For each step in the process, collect data on how much time is spent on each type of work

3. Visually display the results in a bar chart like that shown here

4. Calculate takt time

• The takt time is the amount of available work time divided by the customer demand during that time period.

Ex:

• 8 available hours = 480 min

• 60 customer orders to be filled

• takt time = 480/60 = 8 min

• (you should complete an order every 8 minutes to satisfy customer demand)

5. Act on the result by brainstorming ways to:

• Eliminate NVA activities

• Improve VA activities

• Reduce BNVA activities

 Tips Any VA step that takes longer than the takt rate is considered a time trap ( see p. 203) and must be improved. The goal is to level the times across steps so no step is longer or slower than any other step. Divide the total time by takt time to get a rough estimate of the minimum number of staff required to operate the process. In the chart shown here, the total amount of time spent in all 10 steps is about 445 minutes. If this company had 10 people working in the process, that equals about 44.5 minutes worth of work per employee. But the takt time is 55 minutes. As a rule of thumb, workloads at each step should equal about one takt. In this situation, they could reduce staff to 8 or 9 people (so each employee has about 55 minutes worth of work).

# Chapter 4: Voice of the Customer (VOC)

## Overview

### Purpose of these tools

• To figure out what customers care about

• To set priorities and goals consistent with customer needs

• To determine what customer needs you can profitably meet

### Deciding which tool to use

Customer segmentation, p. 56, principles for identifying subsets of customers who may have differing needs or requirements. Especially useful for any team dealing with a moderate to large customer base.

Types and sources of customer data, p. 58, a list of typical customer data your organization may already have or can get. Use to prompt your own thinking before a VOC effort.

Collecting VOC:

• Interviews, p. 59, guidance on conducting professional interviews with customers. Recommended for any team that wants to develop a deep understanding of customer needs and how customers use the product or service

• Point-of-use observation, p. 60, guidance for what to do if you can visit a customer' s workplace or observe the point of contact between the customer and your product/service. Use to gain greater insight or confirm interview results.

• Focus groups, p. 61, guidance on how to structure focus groups. More efficient than doing separate interviews but still time intensive . Use as needed.

• Surveys, p. 62, guidance on conducting surveys. Best used to confirm or quantify theories developed after other customer contact. Also can be used to identify most important issues to research. Good for gathering quantitative information.

Kano analysis, p. 64, a technique that helps you understand varying levels of value that customers place on different features of your product or service.

Developing critical-to-quality requirements, p. 67, instructions for converting customer need statements into product or service requirements. Use when your mission is to deliver products/services that better meet customer needs.

 Tips With any direct customer contact (interviews, customer observation, focus groups), the stakes are high. Since you will deal with customers face to face, you must leave a good impression . Be organized, be professional. And make sure you follow up or customers will feel their time was wasted . Work with your sales or marketing department to identify and coordinate contact with customers. If multiple people from different departments all contact customers separately, your customers may view you as incompetent. If you' re working on a design project, we recommend you investigate the many sophisticated VOC methods usually linked to Design for Lean Six Sigma or DMEDI approaches (such as the House of Quality). Dealing with customers can be tricky. Get help from experts, if available.