Chapter 6. Project Control

Chapter 6. Project Control

    Exam Prep Questions

    Answers and Explanations

Exam Prep Questions


Change control management is an integral part of the success for a project. A goal of integrated change control is to make sure that product scope changes are reflected in the project scope definition. What is a useful tool or technique that can be used to aid integrated change control?

  • A. Performance reports

  • B. Project plans

  • C. Change requests

  • D. Configuration management


Sarah has been assigned to a high-profile project with several strong personalities that want to expand the scope of her project. She realizes that minimizing scope creep through change control can have a positive impact upon the timeline for the project. Which of the following is an input to integrated change control?

  • A. Change control system

  • B. Performance measurement

  • C. Performance reports

  • D. Lessons learned


You are a project manager and are concerned that certain project work tasks will either be duplicated by multiple team members or not completed at all. What type of procedure can you put into place to ensure that this does not occur?

  • A. Work authorization system

  • B. Formal work sign-off system

  • C. Control charts

  • D. Change control board


Indonesia Limited Corporation is in the process of implementing a PMO and change control process within its organization. At its first staff meeting, there is a heated discussion about why change control should be maintained within the PMO and numerous tools and techniques are debated. Which of the following is not a tool and technique recommended by the PMBOK in integrated change control?

  • A. Change control system

  • B. Performance measurement

  • C. Additional planning

  • D. Corrective action


The work breakdown structure is an important input to which of the following project scope management processes?

  • A. Scope planning

  • B. Scope definition

  • C. Scope change control

  • D. Initiation


As a high-profile project manager for nuclear power projects, Theodore has come to the realization that incorporating project changes into the schedule throughout the project is imperative if he is going to keep the project on schedule. By utilizing network diagrams, he is able to track the scheduling and execution of the various tasks throughout the process. When performing a backward pass analysis of a project schedule, he knows that it is important to identify and evaluate all of the paths of activities that have

  • A. Negative slack

  • B. Positive slack

  • C. No slack

  • D. A critical success factor


Scope change control can be time consuming because it requires a lot of communication with resources and buy-in from stakeholders. The PMBOK states that scope change control deals with all of the following except

  • A. Preventing changes from occurring

  • B. Influencing the factors that result in scope changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon

  • C. Determining that a scope change has occurred

  • D. Managing the true changes when and if they occur


Why is the project plan important in change control?

  • A. The project plan documents the baseline that changes are managed against.

  • B. The project plan enables all required changes to be approved.

  • C. The project plan will probably change as the project progresses.

  • D. The project plan facilitates stakeholder communication.


All of the following are outputs of scope change control except

  • A. Scope changes

  • B. Corrective action

  • C. Adjusted baseline

  • D. Change requests


Risk monitoring and control involves tracking known risks, identifying new risks, and executing risk plans. Which of the following answers are outputs of risk monitoring and control?

  • A. Risk response audits and risk reviews

  • B. A risk management plan and a risk response plan

  • C. Corrective action and a risk management plan

  • D. Workaround plans and corrective action


Project quality control includes verifying that the results comply with related quality standards. Both product results and Project Management results are included in quality control. What are some inputs to quality control?

  • A. Work results and rework

  • B. Work results and operational definitions

  • C. Quality improvement and rework

  • D. Control charts and Pareto diagrams


Earned value analysis (EVA) is the preferred performance reporting technique. Earned value involves calculating all of the following values except for

  • A. Budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS)

  • B. Cost performance index (CPI)

  • C. Planned value (PV)

  • D. Actual cost (AC)


The triple constraints of Project Management are areas that project managers should focus upon to provide more reliable and positive outcomes on a project. Project success is based heavily upon the control of cost, time, and scope, as well as

  • A. The acceptance given by the customer

  • B. The human resources of the customer

  • C. The level at which the project was under budget

  • D. Very few lessons learned


The Project Management Book of Knowledge (PMBOK) is an internationally known reference guide for project managers. How does the PMBOK define the work breakdown structure (WBS)?

  • A. A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control.

  • B. A document that obligates the seller to provide the specified product and for the buyer to pay for it.

  • C. A document that defines the sum of the products and services to be provided through the project, which is utilized for making future project decisions.

  • D. A deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total work scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work.


As you evolve as a project manager, you will have the opportunity to interact with some very talented people. In your current position, you are a telecommunications project manager and the project sponsor of your Internet project has asked you to change the scope of the project. What should you do?

  • A. Tell him that the scope cannot be changed after the baseline is set.

  • B. Prepare a scope change document.

  • C. Adapt a passive-aggressive stance and do nothing.

  • D. Advise him about the potential impact to the timeline and resource allocation.


Your project office has issued a Project Management methodology that emphasizes the importance of integrated change control. It communicates that change requests can occur in all the following forms except

  • A. Externally or internally initiated

  • B. Legally mandated or optional

  • C. Oral or written

  • D. Formal or informal


You are assuming the role of project manager on an existing project. You are in the process of examining all scope change requests. To assess the degree to which the project scope will change, you need to compare the requests to which project document?

  • A. Work breakdown structure (WBS)

  • B. Project plan

  • C. Contract

  • D. Scope management plan


Schedule control is an important tool used to avoid schedule delays. Time management corrective action often involves expediting certain activities to ensure that they are completed with the least possible delay. To plan and execute schedule recovery, corrective action frequently requires

  • A. Root-cause analysis

  • B. Re-baselining the project plan

  • C. Change requests

  • D. Resource leveling


Some organizations do not allow for a timeline to be re-baselined and others prefer that changes are reflected in a new baseline for the project. If you must re-baseline the project schedule, it is important that you do it carefully so that

  • A. Resource leveling isn't needed

  • B. All stakeholder approvals are documented

  • C. All management approvals are documented

  • D. Historical data is not lost


Marvin is a great asset for the company and has made the transition from being a subject matter expert to a well-rounded project manager. In his years of training, he has come to the opinion that a well-thought-out change control management system should be communicated to the stakeholders at the beginning of the project during the kickoff meeting. One benefit of a schedule change control system is that it includes

  • A. Which types of schedule changes are allowed

  • B. Required approval levels for the authorization of schedule changes

  • C. Methods for measuring cost variations

  • D. Methods for measuring schedule variations


Keeping the budget and schedule in check is a challenging endeavor for an inexperienced project manager who is not detail oriented. If the cost variance and the schedule variance are the same and greater than zero, what does this mean?

  • A. The schedule variance is the cause of the cost variance.

  • B. The variance is not favorable to the project.

  • C. The variance is favorable to the project.

  • D. The cost variance is the cause of the schedule variance.


Your Project Management Office (PMO) director tells you that if you do not start using some form of project indicator so that management knows what to expect from your project, you will be fired. In an effort to give upper management an effective indicator, you decide to focus on the complete performance index (CPI). What is the purpose of this index?

  • A. To predict whether the project will be over budget

  • B. To predict all probable change requests through the remainder of the project

  • C. To determine the cost performance needed to complete the remaining work within management's financial goal for the project

  • D. To determine the value of all projects being performed at an organization


Your client continually asks for the project's bottom line profit "numbers." Which category of profit is he really interested in?

  • A. Operating

  • B. Gross

  • C. True

  • D. Expected


Which of the following is a tool in scope planning for analyzing a design, determining its functions, and assessing how to provide those functions cost effectively?

  • A. Pareto diagram

  • B. Monte Carlo analysis

  • C. Value engineering

  • D. Fast tracking


Resource-constrained planning can sometimes impact a budget if a resource is not available during the time period that was originally planned and the cost cannot be reallocated to another section of the budget. The undistributed budget is part of

  • A. Stakeholder reserves

  • B. An overall program's budget

  • C. Another project's budget

  • D. Performance measurement baseline


Learning all of the inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques in the PMBOK can seem overwhelming; however, they become more cohesive and make more sense as you progress through the materials. Which of the following is an input to scope change control?

  • A. Scope change control

  • B. Performance reports

  • C. Performance measurement

  • D. Additional planning


Construction project managers generally like scope creep because it can positively impact their bottom line and profitability for a developed property. The change control process involves documenting anything that was not originally agreed to in the scope document. How can change requests impact the scope?

  • A. Either expansion or shrinking of the scope

  • B. Only expansion of the scope

  • C. Only shrinking of the scope

  • D. It depends on the original scope of the project


Martin is trying to decide how to outsource some of his company's noncore business activities because he does not have the appropriate staff to maintain the current level of operations. He realizes that resource leveling can only occur if the resources have flexibility in their availability. This shifting of resources might require a change control document to be approved by the sponsor. A change control system is concerned with

  • A. Preventing all changes from affecting project execution

  • B. Influencing factors that cause change, determining a change has occurred, and managing the implementation of a change

  • C. Ensuring the change control board is informed

  • D. None of the above


Many Project Management experts have speculated about the pitfalls of large-scale, high-dollar projects and how the burnout of valuable resources can be an inherent risk to the project. Which phase of the project life cycle has the greatest degree of uncertainty?

  • A. Initiating

  • B. Planning

  • C. Executing

  • D. Controlling


Alberta spends most of her time focusing on noncritical path elements of her project and thinks that implementation of some system might help get feedback from her team members. She is doing some research on the Internet and finds the term PMIS. What is a PMIS?

  • A. A repository used for project information so that future projects can learn from previous ones

  • B. An output that is required in a project plan

  • C. A PM certification similar to the PMP

  • D. None of the above


The work breakdown structure provides a foundation for the project to develop a responsibility assignment matrix and allocate resources. Which of the following statements about a WBS is false?

  • A. It is a key project-planning tool.

  • B. It is one method used to build a project schedule.

  • C. It provides a framework for ordering a project's tasks.

  • D. It breaks a project into greater detail by level.


There are numerous ways to reduce the estimated duration of activities in order to have a positive impact upon your timeline. Many times, this can save money for the project. Some ways to reduce the duration of activities include all of the following except

  • A. Scope reduction

  • B. More experienced resources

  • C. Crashing the schedule

  • D. Re-baselining


A change control system does not have

  • A. Paperwork

  • B. Referential authority

  • C. Approval requirements

  • D. Tracking mechanisms


The aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks required a tremendous cleanup work effort. During the inception of these project plans, there was a more narrow focus, which eventually expanded to include countless subprojects. In order to monitor and control these subprojects, a change control management system was required. Which of the following is a tool and technique used in scope change control?

  • A. Adjusted baseline

  • B. Lessons learned

  • C. Scope changes

  • D. Additional planning


Enrique wants to focus on only the key elements of his highway expansion project so that he can stick to the tight timeline. He stresses to his supervisors that any schedule changes must immediately be reported to the shift supervisor so that corrective measures can be taken. Schedule control requires

  • A. Assessment of the magnitude of variation to a schedule to determine whether corrective action is needed

  • B. Re-baselining

  • C. Weekly meetings to update tasks

  • D. None of the above


Rework must be done when

  • A. Complete planning has been done

  • B. A quality control finding deems it necessary

  • C. A project resource has not been trained

  • D. None of the above


Balancing the triple constraints of scope, time, and budget is always a challenge and some organizations indicate that you can only realistically focus on two of the elements. Because many of them focus on their bottom financial line, they lose sight of other cost-cutting options that would not be detrimental to the project. Which of the following is not an input to cost control?

  • A. Revised cost estimates

  • B. Cost baseline

  • C. Performance reports

  • D. Cost management plan


Estimating projects can be a time-consuming activity that requires input from various stakeholders on a project. Which of the following is the way the PMBOK defines estimate at completion (EAC)?

  • A. It is the same as AC.

  • B. It is the same as EVA.

  • C. It is a forecast of most likely total project costs based on previous projects' performance.

  • D. It is a forecast of most likely total project costs based on project performance and risk quantification.


Identifying and learning from the outcomes in a project can help for future projects. What types of lessons learned should be documented?

  • A. Positive outcomes

  • B. Negative outcomes

  • C. Negative and positive outcomes

  • D. None of the above


The risk analysis process is frequently overlooked at Backward Thinking Corporation, and Valerie is trying to convince upper management about the potential positive implication of performing this analysis. She explains how risk monitoring is rarely done in her department, which impacts the timeline and quality of her project execution. Risk monitoring and control

  • A. Only needs to occur at the start of a project

  • B. Only needs to occur at the end of a project

  • C. Keeps track of identified risks, monitors residual risks, identifies new risks, and ensures the effectiveness of risk plans at reducing risk to the project

  • D. All of the above


Big Clock Company is developing a new line of water motion clocks that will be used in shopping malls and airports. Because it has not done one of these projects before, it is going to develop a baseline for the project so it knows what the original timeline estimates were for each phase of the project. It realizes that measuring anticipated and actual performance on this project will help keep it on course. The performance measurement baseline is the

  • A. AC

  • B. EV

  • C. PV

  • D. EVA


Which of the following can be used to monitor the number of errors that have been identified and the number that still remain unidentified?

  • A. Trend analysis

  • B. Quality assurance test

  • C. Quality audit

  • D. Lessons learned


The ordering of defects or errors that should be used to guide corrective action is the underlying principle of

  • A. Lessons learned

  • B. Pareto diagrams

  • C. Bar charts

  • D. Error ordering


Changes to the project are common in certain types of projects, especially when they involve new technology. Project modifications should be reflected in the

  • A. Project plan

  • B. Quality control document

  • C. Lessons learned document

  • D. Quality control audit


Your client would like a forecast of project costs for the next six months so that he can review the budget. Which of the following sources of information should you consider?

  • A. Similar project cost estimates

  • B. Pending change requests

  • C. Project plan

  • D. WBS


Maintaining quality on a project can be a challenge when stakeholders are demanding results within a short time frame. When utilizing statistical quality control, it is important to understand

  • A. How it was used on similar projects

  • B. Statistical sampling

  • C. Attribute sampling

  • D. Special causes and random causes


Mario works for HS Corporation and is required to monitor and manage the budget for his new Broadway musical project. This week, it encountered several unexpected costs due to a hurricane in one of the cities in which the production is playing. Because of these added costs, his budget might be in jeopardy, and he needs to implement a cost control plan. A cost change control system can be used to

  • A. Define the procedures by which the cost baseline may be altered

  • B. Determine why a cost variance exists

  • C. Define the budget ceiling for a project

  • D. Determine where excess project funds should be utilized


NRG Enterprises is developing a new line of memory-enhancing products that have the potential to gain a significant market share. The owner of NRG, Ima Smart, enforces very strict scope management policies to keep the focus of the project on this product line. A project scope change control system

  • A. Must be part of the project plan

  • B. Must be part of the WBS

  • C. Defines the procedures by which project scope may be altered, including the paperwork, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing change

  • D. All of the above


Lessons learned are important to document because an organization can use them to improve future projects and the Project Management process. Therefore, in project closing procedures, it is helpful to review the

  • A. Checklists for risk identification

  • B. WBS

  • C. Original contract

  • D. Vendor audits


Risk management should be incorporated into every project in order to absorb, minimize, or eliminate events that could impact your budget and timeline. As stated in the PMBOK, the purpose of risk monitoring is to determine whether

  • A. Risk responses have been implemented as planned

  • B. Project assumptions are still valid

  • C. A risk trigger has occurred

  • D. All of the above


Because projects tend to be the most risky at the beginning of the project life cycle, risk analysis can help a project manager acknowledge that no project is without a certain amount of risk. Which of the following is an input to risk monitoring and control?

  • A. Risk management plan

  • B. Risk response plan

  • C. Project communication

  • D. All of the above


Periodic project risk reviews are considered to be

  • A. An output of risk monitoring and control

  • B. A tool and technique for risk monitoring and control

  • C. An input to risk monitoring and control

  • D. Not necessary


High Water Septic Systems is dealing with pollution problems in one of its local rivers that is used as an overflow for its treatment plant. Therefore, the government has mandated that it develop a schedule for resolving the overflow problem and getting the river back to EPA standards. The project schedule is an output of schedule development. It is utilized as an input to

  • A. Activity definition

  • B. Activity sequencing

  • C. Schedule control

  • D. Activity duration estimating


Which of the following are outputs of schedule control?

  • A. Schedule updates, corrective action, and lessons learned

  • B. Project schedule, performance reports, and change requests

  • C. Schedule updates, corrective action, and performance reports

  • D. Lessons learned, performance reports, and change requests


As a project manager, you understand that correlating risk and mitigation costs is a valuable exercise that can isolate financial implications for the risks. A risk database is an output of risk monitoring and control. What is a risk database?

  • A. A repository used to maintain information about risky projects

  • B. A repository used to maintain information about risky customers

  • C. A repository used for data collected and utilized in the risk management process

  • D. All of the above


Progressive elaborations are common in projects and can help the project develop higher quality standards with each iteration. Rework is

  • A. Never acceptable

  • B. Action taken to bring a nonconforming item into compliance

  • C. Never necessary

  • D. Always required to meet quality control measures


It is important to maintain high quality standards for your projects and to utilize inspections to maintain those standards. Inspections completed during a project may also be called

  • A. Walkthroughs

  • B. Control tests

  • C. Checkpoints

  • D. Quality checklists


Green Leaf LLC is an accounting firm that frequently becomes involved with risk audits and the financial implications that are correlated with those risks. What is the major difference between a risk audit and a risk review?

  • A. There is no difference.

  • B. A risk audit is only conducted on a much larger project.

  • C. The project team conducts a risk audit, whereas an outside party conducts a risk review.

  • D. An outside party conducts a risk audit, whereas the project team conducts a risk review.


Raj is new to Project Management and is perplexed by scope verification and quality control terminology. You explain to him that scope verification differs from quality control in that

  • A. Scope verification is concerned with the acceptance and not the correctness of the work results.

  • B. Quality control is necessary, whereas scope verification is not.

  • C. A and B.

  • D. None of the above.


You have just learned that a new governmental regulation will cause a change to your project's product specifications. What should you do?

  • A. Set up a meeting with the government to discuss this regulation.

  • B. Create a new project plan.

  • C. Create a new WBS.

  • D. Prepare a change request.


The vice president of your company has requested that you attend the upcoming change control board meeting that is scheduled this week. Why is a change control board necessary?

  • A. To approve or reject changes to the project plan

  • B. To approve or reject change requests when required

  • C. To approve or reject changes to the WBS

  • D. To approve or reject the selection of project team resources


Understanding the concept of a schedule performance index might be useful in identifying projects that should not be included in your project portfolio. What does a schedule performance index of less than 1.0 indicate?

  • A. The project is over budget.

  • B. The project is not as valuable as originally estimated.

  • C. The project is running behind the monetary value of work planned to accomplish.

  • D. None of the above.


Information technology and telecommunication projects frequently offer opportunities for the project manager to develop different scenarios to reach the end result. Some of these scenarios might involve a workaround. What is a workaround?

  • A. A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost or schedule risk

  • B. Compressing the project schedule by overlapping tasks

  • C. An unplanned response to a determined negative risk

  • D. None of the above


Cost overruns have plagued the introduction of a new factory assembly line at your company and your project's approved cost baseline has been exceeded. What should you do next?

  • A. Request more funds from the customer.

  • B. Update the project plan.

  • C. Update the WBS.

  • D. Issue a budget update.


Construction has begun on the new wing at New Life Hospital and Rick plans to use scheduling software to plan his resource allocations. Project Management software and variance analysis are tools and techniques used in

  • A. Schedule control

  • B. Risk response planning

  • C. Administrative closure

  • D. Quality control