How to Move Beyond Thinking Pink
Pink thinking begins inside an organization and expresses itself in the marketplace through products, advertising and marketing programs aimed at women. The following ten steps detail an inside-out approach to helping companies move beyond pink thinking and into a position of brand leadership. When a company can create a brand that reflects a deep knowledge, commitment and understanding of the community of women they serve, women will reward the authenticity of their efforts at the checkout counter.
1 UNDERSTAND HER EARNING POWER
Women now earn one trillion dollars a year and their incomes over the past three decades have increased a dramatic 63 percent after inflation, while men's median income has barely budged (+0.6 percent after inflation).  This increase in earning power is not the result of one big event but has been fueled by a series of important changes in the workplace, family and personal lives of women. Here are some of the key factors that may contribute to her thicker wallet:
WAGE GAP SHRINKING
The wage gap is quickly narrowing to make women's incomes more comparable to those of their male counterparts, with the average full-time working woman now earning 76 cents on each dollar earned by a man. This is particularly so for the younger generation, where there is the least discrepancy between the wages of men and women, to the tune of just a few cents on the dollar. In 1998, women ages 25 “34 earned 83 cents on the male dollar; women ages 19 “24, 89 cents on the male dollar. 
It's no surprise that college degrees are helping propel women into higher paying professions and executive-level positions . The advancement in women's earning power is powerfully illuminated by their taking home the majority of bachelor degrees (57 percent) and pursuing advanced degrees in record numbers ”earning 50 percent of law degrees, 40 percent of MBAs and 46 percent of medical degrees. 
Women now bring in half or more of the household income in the majority of U.S. households. In the 55 percent of U.S. households made up of married couples, Census Bureau survey data indicates that 48 percent of the working wives provide at least half of household income.  But don't forget the influence of the many unmarried women in the United States today. In fact, 27 percent of U.S. households are headed by a single female who brings in the entire household income.  One final surprising statistic about women's influence on household income: Among married female executives with a rank of VP or higher in a Fortune 500 company, 75 percent out-earned their husbands, bringing home on average 68 percent of household income. 
To achieve this noticeable increase in their contribution to household income, more and more women use their college and advanced degrees to start or buy their own businesses. In fact, women own 40 percent of all companies in this country. From 1987 to 1999, the number of women-owned businesses grew 103 percent, about one and a half times the national average. What's more, their employment levels grew 320 percent and the revenues of these women-owned companies grew most of all, up 436 percent. Of course, these strides translate into bigger paychecks and higher overall net worth.
HIGH NET WORTH
Women head approximately 40 percent of the households with assets of more than $600,000 and have quietly become the majority asset holders in the United States, controlling 51 percent of the private wealth in this country.  In addition, Mature and Baby Boomer women (who statistically will live longer than their male siblings and spouses) will benefit the most from the intergenerational transfer of wealth from their parents. The ranks of affluent women will only increase, and it is estimated by 2010 that two- thirds of all private wealth in the United States will rest in their hands.
2 WAKE UP TO HER SPENDING POWER
Perhaps even more compelling than women's increased earning power is their spending power in their households and workplaces. While women's combined earnings are estimated around $1 trillion annually, her spending power overall is estimated at over $2 trillion each year. 
HOUSEHOLD PURCHASING AGENT
No one could deny, once they've given it any thought at all, that women are responsible for the bulk of consumer purchases. The proof is in the numbers: Women account for roughly 80 percent of all consumer buying. The Center for Women's Business Research indicates that businesswomen (working women and female entrepreneurs) are the primary decision makers in households, making 95 percent of the purchasing decisions. To be more specific and drive home that point: Women are responsible for 70 percent of all travel decisions, 57 percent of all consumer electronics purchases, and they buy 50 percent of all new vehicles (influencing 80 percent of overall automobile sales).  Finally, women write an estimated eight out of ten personal checks in the United States, making their financial power even more formidable.  Women in most households today not only control the spending of their own paychecks, but a good deal of their husband's as well.
CORPORATE PURCHASING AGENT
The number of women in business or who own their own business means that the buying power of women extends beyond household spending to corporate spending as well. Business product vendors are noticing that 51 percent of all purchasing managers and agents are women.  Furthermore, human resources executives are predominately women, and they make the key decisions for corporate financial services, including lucrative insurance contracts and company retirement plans.
Office managers are the important filters for a company's supplies and services as well. The recent UPS ad campaign "What can Brown do for you?" tapped into the reality that women office managers are the key decision makers who choose and use their services.
WOMEN TAKE CARE OF BUSINESS
During World War II, many women entered the workforce for the first time to assist the war effort. Because so many of them discovered they enjoyed working outside the home, a fundamental shift in women's attitudes toward conventional life paths ensued. Then, during the 1960s and 1970s women started to enter the workforce in large numbers, in part because of the newfound sense of freedom they had gained though the various activist movements. The introduction of the birth control pill also had a significant effect on women's role in business, as it gave them a choice of when, and if, they wanted to have children.
WOMEN OWN BUSINESSES
Between 1997 and 2002, sales generated by women-owned firms increased 40 percent nationwide , nearing $1.5 trillion. And, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, women-owned firms employed nearly 9.2 million workers as of 2002. Furthermore, this wealthy growth segment of businesspeople also influences the purchasing of many business- related products and professional services. The U.S. Small Business Administration reports that women-owned businesses generate more than the gross domestic product of most countries , contributing $2.38 trillion annually in revenues to the U.S. economy! And this trend is no fluke. Working Mother magazine predicts these numbers will continue to grow as women-owned businesses open at twice the rate of maleowned enterprises . 
With an increasing number of women investing in the stock market, the women's demographic will create more wealth in the future. According to the National Association of Securities Dealers, women now comprise 47 percent of investors overall, 50 percent of new and potential shareholders and 35 percent of investors with holdings of more than $50,000 in mutual funds and stocks. We call this nest egg building, and then some!
SINGLE WOMEN CREATE NEW BUYING DYNAMICS
Seventy percent of women will be solely responsible for their finances and purchases at some point in their adult life. Factors that contribute to this not-so-surprising trend include a high divorce rate, more women choosing not to marry and women's longer life expectancy (widows outlive their mates by an average of seven years). Along with their growing income, women simply have more years to influence the economy.
TITLE IX INFLUENCES GENDER EQUITY
Passed in 1972, Title IX was landmark legislation that banned gender discrimination in athletics and that continues to create opportunities for women that their moms and grandmothers never had. In the thirty years since Congress approved this gender-equity law, sports leagues for girls and young women have become increasingly popular at all levels.
Interestingly, an April 2002 article in the Chicago Tribune reported that a study linked sports participation with success among women executives. "For women, the road to the boardroom may well lead through the locker room," concluded a survey of 401 women executives conducted by Oppenheimer Funds and its parent company, MassMutual Financial Group . "From the Locker Room to the Boardroom: A Survey on Sports in the Lives of Women Business Executives" provided food for thought, by showing the correlation between women playing sports in their early years (whether on cross-gender or all-girl teams ) and their developing a sense of equality with their peers and a spirit of competition, which led to business successes in later years. Volleyball, soccer, basketball and any other school sport certainly do teach the values of discipline, teamwork and working toward a goal ”so the connection to success in business makes good sense.
3 RUN YOUR NUMBERS
Women today comprise a significant majority of customers for most businesses. So, focusing on their preferences is literally big business that can dramatically affect a company's sales, market share and profits.
So what's the point of going into the societal and historic changes that affected women's earning and spending power? It's to prove that the profile of your target market is ever changing (and evergreen) and to convince you to carry out the research (and expend the budget) to find out who is really buying your product or service, and why.
Women's buying power has snuck up on many companies that have historically considered men as their primary market. More than ever before, companies need to run their own numbers to get a solid idea of who actually influences the purchasing of their particular products and, finally, who carries out the cash-register transaction.
According to the manager of one credit union, with 93,000 members and annual revenue of $1 billion, surveying its member base every three years was well worth the continual effort. The results were always the same until the year 2000, when the typical member changed dramatically from a 53-year-old family man to a 46-year-old single workingwoman.
In his booklet Women Roar , marketing guru Tom Peters gives another striking example of a traditionally male-oriented company waking up to the shift in the gender of its core consumer: After some internal research, an owner of a company that produced and sold riding lawn mowers was shocked to discover that 80 percent of the customers who purchased his products were women, not men.
Given this swing over the past few decades in monetary power from men to women, many companies are still playing catch-up. If this applies to you, this book will help you make the quantum leap in refocusing your marketing efforts on your women customers.
BRAND-SPECIFIC AND COMPANY-FRIENDLY NUMBERS
When presenting your numbers and making your case about changing your company's approach to its customers, remember the importance of having strong research based on facts, not on opinions or assumptions. Keep in mind that you may need to customize your data in order for it to have an impact on your colleagues. Many people trust only data generated by their own people or that is specific to their own industry and brand. In addition, your marketers and salespeople probably need to see the size of the opportunity in a format they are accustomed to, or it won't help your case at all.
Thus, it is important to try putting the women's market opportunity in a familiar format, preferably using in-house data that is split by gender. If your team members are used to numbers and statistics, give them that; but if they respond better to bar graphs, use that imagery. We realize that even with your own data it can be a challenge to track the real economic influence of your female consumers. How often, for example, are women customers carrying out the prepurchase research and then making the purchase, but using their husband's credit card or account name ? In general, we suggest reframing statistics to be as relevant as possible to your own brand, and translating the macro-level research into specific strategic observations and action points for your company.
4 MAINSTREAM AND INTEGRATE YOUR MARKETING TO WOMEN
Spread the knowledge about women's preferences and buying behaviors throughout your organization, rather than limiting yourself to an isolated women-focused marketing department. Yes, you read that right. Just say no to the entire concept of "women's initiatives." Women as a group are not a tidy niche. In fact, women constitute a huge market that can be segmented in many different ways. For most companies today, women and their varied buying behaviors are the market that can effectively make or break their brand.
A good example of a well-integrated organization is consumer packaged goods company Procter & Gamble. P&G has long been aware that women are its primary customers, and it is leading the industry in innovatively tailoring to women its sampling programs, Web sites and new product designs.
In contrast, historically male-focused industries like financial services, health care and automobile manufacturing may still be scrambling to identify the best methods for integrating their focus on women throughout their organizations. A good example of an effort in this direction is the work of Debra Nichols, senior vice president of Wachovia's women's financial advisory service. Nichols continually audits all the company's departments to assess how well they're connecting with and serving women and how they can improve their efforts. Nichols's executive-level position, backed by the full support and commitment of Wachovia's top leadership, helps ensure that all departments take her division seriously and embrace the company-wide commitment to reach women customers more effectively.
Given her experience in a large, traditionally male-focused industry, Nichols encourages other companies to include the women's angle in their existing objectives, rather than adding a separate business unit to market to women. "There is always an issue when trying to get separate funding for a new women's initiative. I personally struggle with the math to justify it, which is why we use the model that we do," she says, adding that with their system implementation costs are not incremental, but integral, to their overall budgets . 
While Wachovia's system has worked well for them, some in the financial services industries have tried this approach with less success because they lacked crucial internal support. In addition, some found that their lack of executive title, budget and staff made them less powerful and effective. These are important factors to consider as companies map out their internal strategies and approaches.
It will be important to continually observe and learn from the best practices of both consumer packaged goods and more traditionally male-focused industries as they shift their marketing focus and dollars onto their women customers.
5 REFRAME YOUR APPROACH
Things have changed. It is true that once upon a time Caucasian males earned the bulk of the nation's income and made most of the decisions about how to spend it. As a result, most sales campaigns were designed and executed with men in mind. It made as much marketing sense then to follow the money as it does today.
So, how exactly does a company begin today to reframe its approach in order to appeal to women?
Early efforts to reach women were sincere but often lacked the right tone. These campaigns could affectionately be categorized as "pink," as they translated products, services and marketing materials into feminine or flowery versions of the original. Driven by stereotypes (pastel colors, overly sentimental copy, unrelatable characters and storylines), these early marketing efforts underperformed because they lacked depth of knowledge of what women customers really wanted. According to Vanessa Freytag, president of W-Insight Inc., a Cincinnati-based marketing firm that focuses on women, "Too many companies market to women unsuccessfully and then assume it a not a productive market rather than looking at the fact that how they did it might have been the problem". 
It is safe to say these ineffective albeit sincere pink campaigns have instilled a significant fear in the hearts of CEOs, marketers and employees about trying this women-focused thing themselves . In response to the failure of pink campaigns, a gender-neutral approach has arisen, wherein companies conclude that men and women are really not that different from each other ”and even if they were, they wouldn't want to be marketed to differently. The gender-neutral marketing contingent feels that campaigns for women are insulting to the people they are trying to reach, and that they also turn off men at the same time.
As you can see, framing a campaign or product launch is probably one of the most confusing and least studied aspects of marketing to women. If you don't want to do a pink campaign yet are convinced that women do want an approach more tailored to their needs, what are your options? We propose a set of approaches that marketers might consider as they evaluate their market: visible, transparent and hybrid.
Some products just demand language and imagery that is unquestionably directed toward women. A few examples of successful visible campaigns include that of the Venus razor by The Gillette Company, or the way Wachovia created an online retirement calculator for women that factored in their longer lives and years outside the workforce. In the next chapter, we discuss how and when visible marketing to women works.
A subtle, yet more sophisticated, approach involves tailoring your message to meet women's needs without labeling the product or service exclusively for women. We call this "transparent marketing," a good example of which is the way Home Depot, Lowe's and other home improvement centers have started widening aisles (women like more room to browse and examine products on the lower shelves ) and changing their offerings and displays to appeal to women's interests. While they do not label these efforts "for women" per se, their transparent campaigns differ from being gender neutral in that they acknowledge that women's preferences are different from men's. Home Depot and Lowe's follow transparent guidelines to more fully understand their customers and then develop full-service solutions, tailored services and products to attract a specific group of female do-it-yourselfers. As a bonus, by meeting the high expectations of women in a transparent fashion, they have noticed they are attracting more male customers as well.
There goes the theory that marketing to women is bound to alienate men.
Another example of transparent marketing done well comes from an unexpected source, the Entertainment and Sports Programming Network (ESPN). Clearly marketed to men, ESPN is pitch perfect with humor, tone, imagery and content. The multimedia giant delivers to the interests, preferences and priorities of men without labeling their magazine, TV and radio shows "ESPN sports for men." In chapter 3 we'll examine ESPN further and detail why we see transparency as the brightest future of good marketing to women.
Thirdly, in a hybrid campaign, the overall marketing effort might remain transparent but certain products or elements are more visibly focused on women and their distinct needs. Home Depot's "Do it Herself" workshops promote a visible element within an overall transparent campaign. And, French Meadow Bakery, a Minneapolisbased company that has baked a line of ultrahealthy breads for years, recently introduced "Woman's Bread," featuring ingredients that specifically address women's health concerns. (Then, due to much demand, they quickly followed up with "Men's Bread.")
Home Depot and French Meadow Bakery both successfully reached out to women, in particular, by changing specific programs or redeveloping recipes, without repositioning their entire brand. You don't need to jump out on the sidewalk with a sandwich board that reads: "Women Shop Here. We Appreciate Women Customers!" Rather, by developing a product and marketing approach ”visible, transparent or a hybrid mix of the two ”along with delivering a customer experience that clearly demonstrates you know and value your female customers, you will be much more effective in reaching women.
6 GET INSIDE HER MIND
Men and women think differently. Science shows us that there are numerous biological, neurological and behavioral variations between the male and female brains . These gender differences range from how much information women take in and retain when they walk into a room, to their tendency to be more verbal and seek more human connections. When combined, these scientific differences, though sometimes small, can make a big difference in what attracts women to specific brands and makes them head to the checkout aisle.
When shopping, many women have a 360-degree perspective on life and evaluate products and services by how they fit into that bigger picture. More so than men, women are interactive in their shopping style and are more likely to try on, test and sample products before purchasing them; and they tend to imagine and envision how they will interact afterward with the products in their daily lives. Masters of tapping into people as resources, women interact more with sales associates and get more peer and expert opinions for their big-ticket purchases.
With its 24-7 convenience, the Internet has become a tool, a friend and an advisor for women in their daily lives and a time-saving advocate in their shopping. Women are using the Internet differently than their male peers, and in some cases women online even switch shopping styles with men ”behaving in a more purposedriven, "no time to browse" manner.
By understanding and responding to how women think and shop, marketers can begin to transparently tailor a shopping experience so that it seamlessly delivers on her preferences and eliminates time-gobbling friction (long lines, redundant forms, uninformed sales associates, lack of information). Research shows that companies that elevate their customer service practices based on women's higher standards not only deliver more intuitive shopping experiences, but increase their appeal and sales to both women and men.
In chapter 4 we will delve into the science underpinning a woman's mind and learn more about her buying behavior. Chapters 9 and 10 further illuminate women's online behavior and provide best practices and specific ways to more effectively use this medium to support the sale of your products.
7 SEGMENT AND FOCUS TO REVEAL LUCRATIVE MARKETS
Never in history have American women been shaped by such a diverse set of experiences in the workplace. Today's female consumers are a mix of women with various viewpoints and life experiences. First, there exists a generation of women who grew up prior to the mass exodus away from home. Then, the Baby Boomer generation helped pave the way in the workforce (often at great personal and social expense). Finally, newer generations of women are expanding on these hard-won freedoms of work and career choices.
Each of these women has different perspectives. Even within these generations, there are subsets emerging everyday; for example, career women who decide to stay home and raise children; young women who opt not to marry and have a lot of disposable income; or unmarried women who decide to adopt children and raise them while working.
Women's opportunities have expanded dramatically over the past fifty years, and the result is a large and powerful market with an incredibly broad range of preferences and attitudes. A woman's specific experiences at home, school and work can affect her confidence with technology and finances as well as her shopping behavior and spending patterns.
The tendency to look at the average income and spending of women as one big group can be misleading and often results in missing a wealth of lucrative growth segments. For example, a company specializing in managing private wealth may consider the average income for women in the United States a modest figure.  Except that, further segmentation would reveal that there is a highly affluent group of women who are a great fit for the company's services.
By further examining the confidence level of these affluent women, our fictional company might discern that nearly half of the women are tentative investors who are not being well served by traditional brokerage houses . This information would lay the foundation for a much more tailored approach to their marketing to these affluent women.
Attitude and personal values are key segmenting factors that can also provide new (and often more effective) ways to focus on a market and to position products and services more effectively. For example, moms represent a significant niche for marketers. But the definition of a "mom" no longer refers only to women in their twenties and thirties with working husbands. The mom segment might include young, single mothers in their late teens or early twenties; college- educated women in their early thirties; fully employed women with fully employed husbands; or moms in their early forties who waited longer to start their families. Research has shown that the parenting style of mothers is often the most effective way to segment that group.
In Chapters 5 through 9 we will jump-start your segmentation efforts and, we hope, save you hundreds of hours and thousands of dollars in research. We will explore specific data and describe how to make it actionable in relating it to the shaping of generations, life stages and roles, emerging majorities, the confidence question and life transitions.
8 TRY NEW WAYS OF LISTENING TO WOMEN
While the question of "what women want" is still humorously referred to as the eternal mystery, women can be amazing marketing partners who have an uncanny ability to articulate how a product or service might work better for them. Involving women customers earlier and more fully in the development process can help make your products and services far more compelling, long before they hit the market. Women in casual conversations have the power to help companies solve brand challenges, design more intuitive and relevant products, and create advertising messages that resonate ”with humor and common sense that fit your trademark brand.
The antiquated methods of research that many retailers use to determine what their customers want may well be the critical disconnect between the seller and their mostly female buyers . According to Mary Lou Quinlan, CEO of Just Ask a Woman and a leading marketing consultant specializing in women consumers, "It isn't that retailers don't try to listen, but they're listening to 2003 women in 1950s ways. They do focus groups or surveys, but it's always something with a moderator in the middle that makes the consumer feel as if she's an experiment. The quickest way a retailer can find out what a woman wants is to stand next to the cash register or listen over the door to the fitting room, something that's face-to-face. You'll end up hearing a rundown of what's going on in their lives and what's not going on in your store". 
The Internet has also opened up the conversations with women and provided new ways to hear from them directly, using e-mail, tailored quizzes and online discussions. Because online responses are easily accessible, and because it is fairly simple to measure behavior and responses, the Internet can readily provide a wealth of information and insight for marketers.
The biggest advances in connecting with their women customers come when companies enlist them as their marketing partners and create an ongoing dialogue, whether live or in real time online. That's when listening and research truly become powerful and profitable.
9 BUILD IN WAYS TO MEASURE RETURN ON INVESTMENT
It is critical to build into your marketing programs ways to measure your return on investment (ROI). Often, focusing on women represents a new commitment for a company, and measuring ROI is a credible way to support your business case for increased budgets, staffing power and programming tailored to women's preferences. But, be aware that campaigns and programs targeted to women are frequently expected to produce results far different from comparable programs within the company!
Some marketing programs geared to women are mistakenly measured as if they were sales programs. In reality, your company's efforts in marketing to women should be treated like the rollout of any new service or product. If the process is incomplete and does not go through all the usual tests and procedural steps, it is illogical to expect the program to be successful or to yield the same results as a fully developed initiative.
That said, you should strive to build both traditional and innovative ways into your campaign in order to measure results and strengthen your business case. If possible, measure important indicators such as referrals, word of mouth and customer longevity, because those are the areas where the power of women customers as your marketing partners will have the most effect. Because a transparent approach will increase your appeal to all customers, be sure to also measure new male customers and the increased spending from men as well.
Let's consider the experience of Wachovia's Debra Nichols again. She created an award-winning "Women's Financial Center" as part of Wachovia's main Web site, which included a dedicated e-mail address (not just a general Wachovia information address) and dedicated 800 numbers. Then, Nichols carefully analyzed the quality and type of calls and e- mails the center received through those channels. She discovered that fully 50 percent of the e-mail correspondence to Wachovia's Women's Financial Center included buying questions that indicated highly qualified prospects! The center received a dramatically higher percentage of qualified prospects than did any other part of the company's Web site and showed a strong return on investment.
In another example, Patti Ross, segment executive of womenowned businesses at IBM, began populating the company database with female small business owners , which led to more accurately measuring women's sales activity against those of the general small business customer ”a simple database adjustment with big measurement and market research results.
10 CARPE DIEM
When we first started consulting on marketing to women, we almost had to convince prospective clients of the overwhelming and exciting opportunity in connecting with women. We are happy to report that in the past few years there has been a steady, though gradual, growth of marketing efforts focused on reaching women.
"Marketing to women is still something of a frontier, an extreme sport, if you will," reported Lisa Finn, editor of EPM Communications' newsletter, Marketing to Women , based on a November 2002 subscriber survey. The survey pointed to an increasing interest in the women's market, and that "almost a third (31 percent) report that the numbers of people in their organizations who work on women's marketing have increased in the past two years, while 56 percent say the number has stayed the same". 
It can be fairly scary to make a bold, wholesale commitment to a market where few seem to know the new rules. In many cases companies genuinely want to respond to women's needs, but their tentative testing of the waters is based on the hope that a small change will suffice, and that a more in-depth change with bigger budgets won't have to be pursued. It's a hopeful, quick-fix attitude, and we can understand it.
Certainly, everyone wants a simple solution so they can feel productive and get on with their lengthy list of to dos. But in the case of marketing to women, these cursory efforts are like piling up sandbags against a hundred-year flood ”hoping against hope that a small amount of preparation will hold and do the job.
More than anything, this shift in women's marketing away from pink thinking is your company's opportunity to gain a competitive advantage and spur growth. An assessment of the marketplace shows that most companies are still trying to figure out how they will respond internally, so now is the time to pioneer and lead the charge! This book is about equipping companies and marketers with the tools to go beyond thinking pink and to start serving a bigger slice of today's largest market segment ”women.
 American Men and Women (Ithaca, N.Y.: New Strategist Publications, 2000), page 180, http://www.newstrategist.com.
 Martha Barletta, Marketing to Women (Chicago: Dearborn Trade Publishing, 2003), page 7. Calculated from data from IBID Press, Camberwell, Australia, http://www.ibid.com.au. See also http://www.trendsight.com.
 Ibid., page 5. Also calculated from IBID Press data.
 American Demographics 19, no. 8 (August 1997), page 22, http://www.american-demographics.com.
 American Men and Women , page 214.
 "Women in Corporate Leadership: Progress and Prospects", survey report (New York: Catalyst, Inc., 1996), http://www.catalystwomen.org.
 Federal Reserve statistics, cited in PBS Online, "To the Contrary: Women and Philanthropy ”Sharing the Wealth", http://www.pbs.org/ttc/society/philanthropy.html. See also http://www.federalreserve.gov.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Detailed Personal Income", Current Population Survey, Annual Demographic Survey, March 2002. See http://www.mfea.com/InvestmentStrategies/Women/Challenges.asp.
 Travel: "The Changing Nature of Female Business Travelers", survey by NYU's Tisch Center at the NYU School of Continuing and Professional Studies and Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, 1999, updated in 2003, http://www.scps.nyu.edu/womenbiz and http://www.womenontheirway.com.
Consumer electronics: "Consumer Electronics Association Study", phone interviews with 1,002 U.S. adults in October 2003, in association with the independent market research firm Rockbridge Associates, Inc., http://www.ce.org and http://www.rockresearch.com. Also see "Technology Study: Women buy more tech than men", CNN.com, January 16, 2004; http://www.cnn.com/2004/TECH/ptech/01/16/women.gadgets.ap/.
Automobiles: "American Woman Road and Travel, Auto Demographic Highlights", a female buyer study, http://www.roadandtravel.com/company/marketing/femaledemo.html.
 "Frank About Women", Frankly Speaking Newsletter , vol. 1, page 1, October 2003, http://www.frankaboutwomen.com. Also see http://www.mullen.com.
 Ibid http://www.ibid.com.au/ IBID Press, Camberwell, Australia.
 Cited in Faith Popcorn and Lys Marigold, EVEolution (New York: Hyperion, 2000), page 7. Also see http://www.faithpopcorn.com.
 Lisa Finn, editor, "Dealing with the Dark Side: Why Women's Programs Fail, and Overcoming Resistance," Marketing to Women newsletter (EPM Communications, Inc.), August 2003, http://www.epmcom.com.
 Lisa Finn, editor, "Marketing Programs Aimed at Women Shows Signs of Progress, But It's Still a Sell Internally," Marketing to Women newsletter (EPM Communications, Inc.), December 2002, page 1, http://www.epm-com.com.
 In 2000, the median earnings of full-time working women were $27,355, according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census; cited in Women and Diversity WOW! Facts 2002 (Washington, D.C.: Women's Business Network, 2003), http://www.wbni.com.
 Mary Lou Quinlan, quoted in Randy Tucker, "Retailers Need to Listen to Women Consultant Says," The Cincinnati Enquirer , April 27, 2003, http://www.enquirer.com. Also see http://www.justaskawoman.com.
 Lisa Finn, editor, "Marketing Programs Aimed at Women Shows Signs of Progress, But It's Still a Sell Internally," page 2.