Chapter 2: Installing Windows SharePoint Services
In this chapter, you learn how to prepare and install the Windows SharePoint Server 3.0 (WSS) system with both types of available database configurations. You also learn how to prepare for the installation and understand the different types of system
This chapter is organized by initial sections describing what you are about to do and why, then a step-by-step description on how to do it, and finally some more information on the steps involved, including any tips and tricks based on real-world scenarios.
What Is New in WSS 3.0
This new version of WSS comes with a lot of new features and functionality. It is also faster, but it requires more memory than its predecessor WSS 2.0. It is still a free add-on for any Windows 2003 Server edition, and WSS in itself requires no special client access licenses. Following is a list of the most important changes compared to WSS 2.0:
There are actually even more new features in WSS 3.0, but the functionality now is very good. WSS 3.0 will
Preparing to Install WSS
WSS is the base module of SharePoint 2007, and it can use one of two available database types:
SharePoint also needs some
Although WSS 3.0 is a great product, you should really think twice before making the choice to install it without MOSS. WSS has a lot of benefits, not the least of which is that it comes free with Windows 2003 Server. However, it also has its drawbacks. You should analyze what problems you are trying to solve with SharePoint. If you later decide to upgrade to MOSS, it can be done, but you will have to complete several manual steps in order to make it work. So, the best course of action is to be sure that you have the right version installed from the beginning.
Think about what needs and problems you want to address with your SharePoint installation. Most likely you cannot answer this question on your own. You must talk with your end users because they are the ones who will use SharePoint. Talk with people in your organization and ask questions like the ones in the following table.
If you get one or more answers that
If the results of your investigation suggest a solution based on WSS, you have two database options: if the number of users is less than 1000, you can use a MS SQL Server 2005 Express installed on the same computer as WSS. Else you will need the full MS SQL Server - if you use MS SQL Server, you can also chose between a locally installed database or a remote database server. For example, you could use a MS SQL Server that is used for other applications but has the available resources for your WSS environment.
Types of WSS Configurations
In this section, assume that your SharePoint solution will be based on WSS alone. (To see configurations for the SharePoint solution that includes MOSS, see Chapter 4.) Now you must answer the following question: What database configuration should I use? The following table describes your options.
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Each solution has its own pros and cons:
If you are just building a simple test environment, you will most likely be happy with a local MS SQL Server 2005 Express database. In the previous table, the second row describes two more options that you could use with MS SQL Server: one using a local SQL server, and one using a remote SQL server. To make sure that you understand all the different options, following is a summary of each of the three configurations.
Single-Server Configuration with Local MS SQL Server 2005 Express
This is the preferred configuration for a small WSS environment where collaboration, sharing information, and document management are requested. It is free, it even has a basic search capability, and you do not have to pay any extra license for the WSS or MS SQL Server 2005 Express software. You can get this type of configuration up and running within 15 minutes, because most of the settings for getting WSS and the database to communicate with each other are automatically configured. Microsoft refers to this type of configuration as stand-alone server , because it has both SharePoint and the database engine on the same physical server.
There are no hard limitations regarding the number of users or the
Single-Server Configuration with Local MS SQL 2000/2005 Server
This configuration is perfect for the small organization or department that wants a very good platform for building a basic intranet, for information sharing, and collaboration, as well as basic search capability. The cost is higher than the previous configuration because you need an MS SQL Server, which is not free. But if you already have invested in the MS SQL Server and it has free capacity available, you could install WSS on that same server. This would make a great solution.
Using this database edition, there are no limitations regarding the number of users or the size of the database,. It has the same type of search capability as when using a SQL Server Express, i.e. a user can start the search from the current site, and all its subsites. However, this search feature will not allow a global search; In other words, if you have a number of sites, you must know exactly in what site collection the information is stored to be able to find it.
A Small Farm: WSS with a Separate MS SQL Server
The last configuration is where you install WSS on one server and MS SQL Server on another server. This is something Microsoft refers to as a
There is no added WSS functionality with this solution, aside from the increased number of users supported. However, you could use this configuration with a clustered MS SQL 2005 Server environment, with up to eight nodes, thus giving you both fault tolerance and higher availability.
SharePoint is an application that works best when it gets lots of memory and CPU resources. Version 3.0 of WSS requires about twice as much memory as its predecessor. The reason for this is, of course, that the new WSS version has a lot more features and advanced functionality. A server with 1 GB of memory may support about 100 WSS users, as long as you have the disk capacity to store all the data needed. See the
There are several things you must understand when planning your WSS server:
Calculating the Number of NOPS Required
There is a general, well-proven formula that you can use for calculating the load, or the normalized operations per second (NOPS), on the SharePoint server. From that you can estimate the number of supported users, given a certain hardware configuration. The formula requires you to find out or estimate a number of values: Given the following estimated data that you must supply:
Given the following estimated data that you must supply:
Two of these estimated parameters need to be explained in more detail. The peak factor is a value between 1 and 10, which is used to indicate the peak hours during the work hours. For example, if the organization works from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M., it is a safe bet that most workers start their day by opening their SharePoint environment, because that is where all their information can be found. After that you will probably have an even load. Then directly after
The other estimated parameter is the number of operations per active user per day, which has to do with how much your SharePoint environment will be utilized per day. This is also a value between 1 and 10, where 1 means that your users access SharePoint for almost no time at all and 10 means your users work all day with SharePoint. For a typical organization you would get something close to 10 for this value.
Example 1: An Organization with 200 Very Active Users
Your organization has 200
Example 2: An Organization with 4,500 Normal Users
Your organization has 4,500 employees (A). The percentage of active users in a typical day is 50 (B). The number of operations per active user is 10 (C). The number of working hours for the organization as a whole is 12 hours (E). You estimate the peak factor (D) to be 5. The formula for this organization will look like this:
Now you have a good idea of the load your system will generate. The next step is to use this information to calculate the hardware you need. In the following table are some typical configurations and the estimated normalized operations per second they support.
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From this table you can learn three important things:
The important fact to remember here is that when a server has at least 2 GB of memory, it will support thousands of users, if it is appropriately configured!
Calculating the Disk Space Needed
The disk space that WSS itself requires is less than 50 MB, so the important part is the database where SharePoint will store all its information. The database application requires about 100 MB for its binary files. It does not matter if you are using the SQL Server 2005 Express engine or the MS SQL Server; you still need to follow this simple but important rule:
If you don't have at least 50 percent free space on your database disk, you will not be able to perform database maintenance and troubleshooting, since these activities may need to make a copy of the database in order to perform their
So to estimate the disk space needed for your database, start by estimating the number of files it will contain. For example, assume that you estimate that it will contain about 50,000 files and documents, with an average size of 500 KB. In total this will require at least 25 GB. Add to that 5 GB for the other types of information you will store, and you get 30 GB in total. Following the
Remember that if you implement a small farm configuration (one WSS server and one MS SQL server), you only require the 60 GB of disk space on the database server. The WSS server itself requires very little disk space.
As you may recall from the previous chapter, SharePoint is a web application, and it requires Internet Information Services 6.0 (IIS 6), which in
Remember that you can use any edition of Windows 2003 Server for the WSS installation. However, if you choose the Web Edition of Windows 2003 Server, it must be connected to a separate MS SQL Server, since that edition of Windows Server does not support local databases.
The IIS Virtual Server
In the good old days, each web application required its own physical web server, clearly not the most economical solution. Microsoft
But that solution created a new problem: If one web application crashed, it also
When installing SharePoint, you need to be sure about these two things:
The application pool security context can be either a built-in account, typically the network service, or a standard user account. Whatever account you choose, it must have permissions to read and write to and from the SQL database. Make sure that the user account is granted permission as a database creator and security administrator in MS SQL Server.
Besides the application pool used by the virtual IIS web server for the WSS sites, there will also be a separate application pool for the web-based Central Administration tool that comes with SharePoint. This must be a separate application pool. It cannot share the same application pool as the WSS virtual server.
Before SharePoint can use a virtual web server in IIS, it must be extended with new functionality. This is known as a "web application" in SharePoint 2007. The SharePoint administrator creates the web application when needed, using the SharePoint Central Administration tool by either selecting an existing virtual web server in IIS or creating a new virtual web server, which will then be extended. Each web application can then be used to host one or more site collections, as described in more detail later in this chapter.
Minimum and Recommended Configurations
To summarize the previous hardware and software requirement sections, you can use the following table, which lists Microsoft's minimum and recommended configurations. Remember that for a pilot installation you will actually get away with slightly less than the given minimum memory size in the following table.
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