All of the following statements are true regarding the Closing processes except:
Contract Closeout is part of the Project Procurement Management knowledge area.
Administrative Closure is part of the Project Procurement Management knowledge area.
Contract Closeout verifies that the work of the project was completed accurately and satisfactorily.
Administrative Closure does not have to verify the work of the project if the Contract Closeout process was performed.
Which of the following statements is not true regarding the work breakdown structure (WBS)?
Like the scope statement, WBS is used as a common understanding of project scope.
Like the decomposition process, each level in the WBS is generally assigned a unique identifier.
Like the scope statement, work not shown on the WBS is not work of the project.
Like the decomposition process, each level of the WBS should show an increasing level of detail that describes the project deliverables.
You are a project manager for Fountain of Youth Spring Water bottlers. You are installing a new accounting system and have identified several problems and their causes. You decide to use which of the following to identify the variables that will have the greatest effect on project outcomes ?
Design of experiments
One of your team members , a fellow PMP, is under investigation for violation of the PMP Code of Professional Conduct . What action should you take?
Cooperate fully with PMI in the investigation.
Tell PMI it would be a conflict of interest for you to cooperate in the investigation, because this person is your team member.
Tell PMI it would be a conflict of interest for you to cooperate, because they may uncover information about you during the investigation that could cause them to investigate you.
Cooperate with PMI by truthfully answering all their questions but refuse to give them any written documentation.
Your project is a multi-million dollar project and is one of the largest projects your organization has ever undertaken. You are in the Executing process and according to the project schedule, its time to order equipment for a major deliverable no later than the end of this week. Since you have a free moment, you pick up the phone and give the heads-up to the procurement department to order your equipment. To your dismay, youre told that the proper paperwork hasnt been filled out, and once they get that, theyll need approval from the project sponsor. Which of the following statements is true regarding this question? Choose the best answer.
This is a risk trigger and requires you to implement the mitigation strategy immediately.
This problem will likely cause a variance in the project schedule that will require earned value analysis and corrective action to get the project work lined up with the schedule.
This problem requires both preventative and corrective action.
This is an organizational procedure that should have been taken into consideration during this process to avoid schedule delays.
You are a project manager working on an electronics project. Some of the deliverables that are needed to complete a prototype will require testing. The testing activity has two branches: pass and fail. If the deliverable fails the test, correction will be made and the test will be repeated. What is the best way to diagram these activities?
Arrow diagramming method
Precedence diagramming method
Conditional diagramming method
Network diagramming method
Your company manufactures a line of upscale body lotions. Your assignment entails designing a new line of after-shave lotion. This is a critical project for your company, and youve been given full authority to manage it. Your project team will consist of team members from several functional areas. The VP of Sales has managed projects of this nature in the past and will be actively involved in this project and the critical decision-making process. Your boss, the VP of Marketing, has the authority to assign resources to this project, and she is the go-to person for all critical project decisions. Given these statements, which of the following is not true?
The VP of Sales is the project sponsor.
This is a composite organization.
Your boss is a stakeholder.
This projects success relies on meeting the stated goals and objectives of the project and satisfactorily meeting or exceeding the expectations of your boss and the VP of Sales.
Your quality assurance team has discovered several problems with the product of your project. Theyve ordered the problems by frequency of occurrence on a diagram and have determined that roughly 80 percent of the problems are occurring due to 20 percent of the causes theyve identified. All of the following statements are true except:
You should spend the majority of your effort on the causes that are generating 80 percent of the problems.
The 80/20 rule was first observed by Crosby.
This is a tool and technique of the Quality Control process.
This type of diagram is a histogram.
Benefit measurement methods and constrained optimization methods are also known as which of the following?
All of the following statements are true regarding communication except:
Communication involves a sender, message, and receiver.
Communication occupies 80 percent of a project managers time.
Communication might be written or verbal (and includes formal and informal formats).
Communication is one of the most important skills a project manager can master.
During this contract life cycle phase, the project objectives are refined and confirmed. A review of the potential qualified vendors takes place and solicitation materials such as the RFP are prepared. What contract life cycle phase is this?
You are a project manager working for a television film production company. Your organization practices phase sequencing and requires reviews and approvals of each phase before the next phase can begin. What is this process called?
When negotiating with functional managers for resources, you should consider personal characteristics, competency levels, and availability of the potential team members. Which of the following processes describes negotiations accurately?
A tool and technique of Staff Acquisition
A tool and technique of Resource Planning
A tool and technique of Organizational Planning
A tool and technique of Team Development
You are a project manager working on a new ad campaign for the holiday season. Part of this project entails a series of new TV commercials. You contracted out the production of the commercials that will air during the busy buying season . Now all of the work of the project is done, and youre in the process of closing out the project. Youre gathering information from team members and the vendorincluding some detailed technical specifications for the commercials that were produced by the vendorto archive. Which of the following options contains this information, given the circumstances in this question? Choose the best answer.
Other project records
You are a project manager for Time Will Tell, an international watch manufacturer. Your project entails developing a watch with global positioning satellite (GPS) capabilities. Kit is a junior staff member with two years of experience in GPS technology. Carrie is a senior staff member with five years of experience working with GPS technology. You are developing the activity duration estimates for the project activities. Carrie is currently working on another project, and it isnt known yet if shell be available to work on your project. As a result, youve added additional time to Kits activities, because she isnt as experienced as Carrie and it will likely take her longer to complete them. All of the following statements are true except:
You are considering the resource requirements input of this process.
Youre attempting to determine the activity duration estimates output, which includes qualitative assessments of the likely number of work periods.
You are considering the resource capabilities input of this process.
Resource requirements consider the influence resources assigned to each activity have on the duration of the activity.
You are scheduled to take the PMP exam next month and are certain youre going to pass. You attended a local college that held a six-week course on passing the PMP, and youve spent a lot of time studying . Youve taken two different sample exams and have passed both of those in the 90 percent range. This mornings paper listed a job that youre perfect for. You have all the experience theyre looking for and youve met the education requirements. The only piece thats missing is the PMP requirement. You decide to apply for this job, because youre close to becoming a PMP. All of the following are appropriate actions except:
You indicate on the resume and application that youre sitting for the PMP exam next month.
You are so confident youre going to pass that you put the PMP designation next to your name on the resume and application.
You say nothing on the resume or application, since you havent taken the exam yet.
You tell them at the interview that youre taking the exam next month and hope to pass. If you dont pass, youll continue studying and retake the exam within the next few months.
Which of the following is an example of an imposed date constraint, as defined in the Schedule Development process?
The scheduling and assignment of specialized resources to activities required for a deliverable that was promised to key stakeholders on December 22
The scheduling of an outdoor event no later than December 22 in Phoenix to take advantage of the cooler temperatures
The scheduling of a specific deliverable on the date requested by a key stakeholder
The scheduling of specific work that must be completed outside of the work of the project in order to consider a project deliverable complete.
Which of the following statements is true regarding project closeout?
This tool and technique of the Cost Control process requires that processes and procedures be developed for closing out a project.
This output of the Cost Control process requires that processes and procedures be developed for closing out a project.
This output of the Administrative Closure process states that certain industries may have specific requirements for closing out a project.
This tool and technique of the Administrative Closure process states that certain industries may have specific requirements for closing out a project.
You are working on the communications management plan for your project and have considered the timing and need for updated information by your stakeholders. Your organization has modern, up-to-date technology that your stakeholders and staff have used before, so you anticipate that supplying the information and updates to your stakeholders and team members will be a breeze . And, given the short duration of this project, you dont believe the system will require any upgrades during the project. Which of the following does this question describe?
Communications management plan
Information distribution systems
Your projects primary constraint is time. One of your key stakeholders (who is a major contributor on this project) is demanding the schedule be lengthened. She held her department picnic last weekend , and three of her staff members came down with West Nile virus. The team members shes assigned to your project (who didnt contract the virus) must now do double duty and help support the department functions until their co-workers get well. Your customer will not agree to a schedule change. Which of the following statements is false given the facts in this question?
The project manager has the weakest amount of power and authority in this type of organization.
The project manager should try to resolve the problem such that it doesnt affect the project schedule.
This companys organizational structure is functional, since the department manager is responsible for assigning resources to the project.
The project manager should work with the stakeholder to resolve the problem and negotiate with the customer to change the schedule.
All of the following statements are true regarding quality audits except:
The primary purpose of quality audits is to identify lessons learned.
Quality audits are a tool and technique of the Quality Control process.
Quality audits can be performed at random.
Quality audits can be performed on a schedule.
You are a contract project manager and have entered into the requirements-gathering phase of your project. Two of the departments youre working with on this project have competing interests regarding this project and have done everything they can, including sabotage , to undermine the work so far. In order to finish up the requirements-gathering phase, you will have to exert some influence. Which of the following statements is not true regarding influencing the organization?
Influencing entails the ability to get things done.
Influencing requires an understanding of the formal and informal structures of the organization, including the use of power and politics.
Power involves getting the people in these two departments to do things they wouldnt otherwise do.
Power entails getting these two departments with competing interests cooperating effectively to achieve the goals of the project.
When the individual activities are very accurately detailed, which of the following cost estimating techniques is the best to use and why?
Bottom-up estimating, because accurate details at the activity level increase the accuracy of this process, which also increases the cost of this technique.
Analogous estimating, because it is less costly than other techniques but is typically the most accurate because youre basing cost information on previous projects and activities that are very similar in fact, not just appearance.
Parametric modeling cost and accuracy are very predictable, because they use known project characteristics in a mathematical model to produce costs estimates.
Expert judgment, because it is less costly than other techniques but usually the most accurate, because the people estimating the costs have previous experience with other similar activities.
Which of the following tells you how much more budget is required to finish the project if everything continues at the current levels of performance?
Information-gathering techniques used in the Risk Identification process include all of the following except:
All of the following statements are true regarding motivational theories except for which one?
Motivational theories present ideas on why people act the way they do.
Motivational theories present ideas on how to influence people to act the way you want to get the results you want.
Motivational theories include extrinsic motivators, like religious influences, and intrinsic motivators like self achievement.
Maslow and Herzberg are two well-known theorists on the topic of motivation.
Which of the following describes the interaction between the project management processes endorsed by PMI?
The Executing process is the only input to the Closing process.
The Planning process inputs are Initiating and Controlling.
The Planning process is the only input to the Executing process.
The Controlling and Planning processes are both inputs and outputs to each other.
What is the present value of $8,000 received three years from now using a seven percent interest rate? Assume all options are rounded to the nearest whole dollar.
You are a project manager for Rhone Valley Importers. Your buyer has found a new product for a project youre working on that shes convinced will sell well in this country. Taking on this new product introduces a considerable opportunity for the company but at the same time is also a considerable threat. The cost of this product exceeds anything your company has imported before, and if it doesnt sell as well as the buyer thinks it will, the company could go into bankruptcy. You have the authority to sign this vendor on with the organization. You and the buyer are long-time friends and have discussed the possibility of starting your own company many times. You both look at each other and have the same thought at the same time: This product could be the hit product that will launch your new business. Which of the following steps should you take? Choose the best answer.
The risk in this venture is significant to the organization, so you should inform the project sponsor and the stakeholders about the threat it could pose and seek their approval before signing on the vendor.
You believe this is a good opportunity for the company, even though the risk is high. There are no conflict of interest problems, so you decide to sign on the vendor.
The risk in this venture is significant to the organization, but the potential for gain is great. There is no personal gain at stake in this venture, so you decide to sign on the vendor.
You turn in your resignation , without saying anything about the new product, and start a new company with your buyer friend and hire the vendor she found.
Your project sponsor has reviewed the initial project schedule you created for the project. She is not happy with the project end date, because it doesnt match the promise date she gave the customer. You decide to use some compression techniques first. Which of the following statements should you keep in mind (and know to be true) regarding duration compression?
Crashing is a compression technique that typically produces a viable alternative.
Fast tracking is a compression technique that typically results in increased costs.
Compression shortens the project schedule but doesnt change project scope.
Crashing is a compression technique that typically results in increased risk.
You are a project manager working on a new scientific discovery in conjunction with your local university. Due to some changes that were approved during the Controlling process, you discover that the description of the projects product is no longer accurate or complete. Which of the following tools and techniques (associated with the process it occurs in) will you use to correct this problem?
Scope change control system in Scope Change Control
Quality control system in Quality Control
Configuration management in Integrated Change Control
Change control system in Integrated Change Control
Which of the following statements is not true regarding Project Management Knowledge Areas?
They are a collection of processes that share similar themes.
They benefit from the specific knowledge and skills centered in each area and bring together processes that have things in common.
There are nine knowledge areas.
They are assigned to specific project life cycle phases and are performed only during that life cycle phase.
You have used several cash flow methods to determine alternative ways of performing your current project. You know which of the following is true regarding the results of your cash flow analysis?
Payback period and IRR will generally give you the same accept/reject decision.
NPV and discounted cash flows will generally give you the same accept/reject decision.
Payback period and discounted cash flows will generally give you the same accept/reject decision.
NPV and IRR will generally give you the same accept/reject decision.
Youve just been assigned a new project. You have a copy of the project charter close at hand. It identifies you as the project manager, and after reading it over you believe most of the deliverables are identified. But when reading over the product description you notice a deliverable that wasnt identified in the project charter. Which of the following statements is not true based on the information in this question?
The product description describes the characteristics of the product of the project, so the new deliverable should be incorporated into the scope statement.
The product description includes the product requirements, which represent agreed-upon customer needs.
The progressive elaboration of the product description will occur throughout the Planning process and is a tool and technique of the Scope Planning process.
The product description includes the product design, which reflects the product requirements.
You are contracting services for your current project. You need three chemical engineers to work on your project and youll need specialized equipment and supplies to execute the project. The vendor has agreed to set the rates for the engineers at $275 per hour . The specialized equipment and supplies will be charged back to your organization as theyre needed and purchased for the project. What type of contract is this?
Time and materials
Cost-reimbursable plus incentive
You are a project manager for Jungle Tykes Outdoor Equipment. Your organization supplies playground equipment to several major city parks and schools in the U.S. You are working with the marketing team to design a new piece of equipment. You are in the early stages of project planning and decide that a small number of prototype testers is an accurate enough description for the resources needed during the prototyping phase. Youre guessing (based on past experience with a similar project) once the prototype is designed and functional, youll need to bring in a specific number of experts to test it. Which of the following best describes the portion of the Resource Planning process this question refers to?
Resource pool description
Activity duration estimates
Which process is the foundation process within the Risk Management knowledge area that helps establish risk management for all the processes that follow?
Risk Response Planning
Risk Management Planning
All of these statements describe the Project Scope Management knowledge area except which of the following?
Its concerned with defining all of the work of the project.
It has five processes.
Its processes occur in four of the five project life cycle phases.
Its similar to Project Quality Management in that both knowledge areas are concerned with the product of the project meeting the requirements of the project.
If EV = 145, PV = 162, AC = 138, BAC = 200, and ETC = 62, what is EAC when you believe current variances are not typical?
You are in the midst of performing the Project Cost Management knowledge area. You discover there are two competing alternatives to decide between. You can hire a contractor to build one of the projects deliverables, or you can buy the deliverable from an overseas supplier. Both options require acquisition, operating, and disposal costs that you compare between the two alternatives to make a decision. What is this technique called?
Life cycle costing
Earned Value Management
According to the Team Development process, individual development of team members (both managerial and technical skill development) is important for all of the following reasons except:
Individual development is the foundation of team building, so without it, teams may not function as well as they could.
Any training needed for individual development should be completed prior to the assignment of the individuals to the team.
Individual development enhances the ability of the team to function as a team.
Team development is critical in achieving the goals and objectives of the project. Therefore, individual development is critical to achieving the goals and objectives of the project.
Your project requires three resources with specific knowledge of aeronautics. Fortunately, your organization has these individuals on staff. The project will be influenced as a result of their skills and knowledge, and you know that certain aspects of the project work will have to be organized in a way that will accommodate their special knowledge. Which of the following best describes this concept?
Expected staff assignments
Preferences of the project management team
You are a project manager for Katies Kitchen. They market and sell homemade sauces to gourmet grocery store chains and upscale restaurants . Your project concerns adding two new machines to the production line. You have just finished calculating potential dates for each of your activities. The Prepare Flooring activity is scheduled for an early start date of May 16, an early finish date of May 30, a late start date of June 1, and a late finish date of June 15. The float for this activity is zero. The Install Lighting activity is scheduled for an early start date of June 3, an early finish date of June 30, a late start date of July 1, and a late finish date of July 28. The float for this activity is two days. All other activities have zero float and total 320 days. Which of the following statements is true? Choose the best answer.
The CP for this project is 335 days taking into account the multiple activity duration estimates provided using expert judgment techniques.
CPM calculates multiple duration estimates.
The CP for this project is 348 days taking into account the multiple activity duration estimates provided using expert judgment techniques.
Using float to determine the activities with the least scheduling flexibility is a function of the CPM method.
The Information Distribution process consists of all of the following except which one?
Communication skills, which are used in the exchange of information.
Project presentations, which are ways of presenting project information to stakeholders and others
Project records, which are outputs of this process and include status reports and meeting minutes
Retrieval systems, which are ways of getting the information to the project team members and stakeholders
You are the director of the project management office (PMO) for your organization. Terri, an employee from another department, has approached you about a new project that is being talked about in her department. Terri would like the opportunity to head up this project and wants to convince you of her knowledge of project management and that she can do this job. Terris goal statement for the project says the following, Convert all our distribution centers in the USA to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. This new technology will improve inventory management by giving us a real-time view of demand for the products we sell. It will also help reduce theft and reduce stock-outs. The electronic identification stored in the tags should be fixed. This new technology will require the installation of readers at each warehouse gate. All of the following statements are correct regarding Terris goal statement except for which one?
This statement describes an overview of the project, but it cannot be considered a goal statement because its missing some important elements.
Requirements are specifications of the goal or deliverable, while goals describe what it is the project is trying to produce or accomplish.
This statement describes the goals of the project adequately; however, requirements have been added into the statement. These could be included in a project overview but should not be stated in the goals statement.
Requirements have been mixed into the statement Terri wrote. One of the requirements in this statement is, Electronic identification stored in the tags should be fixed.
The first input listed in the options below is unique to the Scope Change Control process, and the second input listed in the options below is found in four of the seven Controlling processes.
Performance reports, work results
WBS, work results
Performance reports, change requests
WBS, change requests
You are working on documenting the scope statement for your project. Youve interviewed the customer and the key stakeholders. Before publishing the scope statement you ask the key stakeholders to review it. Amy, one of your key stakeholders, tells you that youve missed a project objective. John heard about Amys comment and tells you that the project objective she identified does not impact the success of the project and doesnt need to be documented in the scope statement. In the interest of time, John would like you to get this scope statement approved and published so that the work of the project can begin. Which of the following statements is not true given the facts in this question?
The scope statement, like the project charter, documents the objectives and deliverables of the project. Each project has only one project charter and one scope statement.
However, changes to the scope statement are to be expected throughout the Planning process.
The scope statement contains the objectives and deliverables of the project and is the basis of an agreement between the project team and project customer regarding these elements.
The scope statement becomes the basis for future project decisions and provides everyone involved on the project with a fundamental understanding of the work of the project.
The scope statement should identify all project objectives and deliverables, so the missing objective should be added.
The difference between project deliverables and project requirements is best described in which of the following options?
Deliverables are specific items that must be produced to consider the project or project phase complete. Each project phase has only one deliverable, which may have multiple requirements.
Requirements are measurable items that must be produced to consider the project or project phase complete. Each project phase may have multiple deliverables with multiple requirements.
Requirements are measurable items that must be produced to consider the project or project phase complete; deliverables are the specifications used to tell you what you are trying to produce.
Deliverables are specific items that must be produced to consider the project or project phase complete; requirements are the specifications of the deliverables used to tell you if the deliverable was produced successfully.
You are working on the risk management plan for your current project and need to document how the risk activities will be recorded for the benefit of future projects. Which part of the risk management plan addresses these issues?
Which of the following best describes a project assumption?
The equipment needed for the second deliverable of the project will be delivered one week prior to the start of the work for this deliverable
The projects allotted budget is $425,000 but you know this is only a rough estimate and will be changed as the project plan is further developed
You are a project manager for Elk Mountain Ink, and your company manufactures ink primarily for the newspaper industry. One of the deliverables of your project entails purchasing new manufacturing equipment that will decrease production times. Youve outlined two alternatives based on an initial investment of $76,000. Alternative A has a payback period of 27 months. Alternative B has initial cash inflows of $18,000 semi-annually for the first two years and cash inflows of $4,000 per quarter thereafter. Which alternative should you choose?
A decision cannot be made based on this information alone, because the payback periods are the same.
Alternative A, because its payback period is shorter than Alternative Bs payback period.
Alternative B, because its payback period is shorter than Alternative As payback period.
A decision cannot be made, because there is not enough information in the question to determine the best alternative.
You are working in the Scope Definition process of your project. You have decomposed your deliverables as follows : Project Management, Detailed Planning, Manufacturing, and Testing. The Detailed Planning deliverable is further decomposed to include these deliverables: design document, dimensional restrictions, and user documentation. Adequate cost and duration estimates have now been applied to all the deliverables. Which of the following has occurred in this question?
All the steps of decomposition have been performed.
Steps one, two, and three of decomposition have been performed for the Detailed Planning deliverable.
Only steps one and two of decomposition have been performed for all the deliverables.
Step one and step three of decomposition have been performed for all the deliverables with the exception of the Detailed Planning deliverable.
Your selection committee can only choose one of the following projects: Project As original investment is $1 million and the payback period is 18 months. Project Bs original investment is $1.4 million and the payback period is 18 months. Project Cs original investment is $1.8 million and the payback period is 18 months. Which project should the committee choose?
There isnt enough information in the question to determine an answer.
This tool and technique of the Quality Planning process helps the project team anticipate and identify where quality problems might occur on the project, which in turn, helps them develop alternatives for dealing with the quality problems.
Design of experiments
What are the outputs of the Risk Identification process?
Risks, triggers, and inputs to other processes
Risks, triggers, secondary risks, and inputs to other processes
List of prioritized risks, triggers, and inputs to other processes
List of prioritized risks, residual risks, secondary risks, triggers, and inputs to other processes
You are working on a project and are performing the Qualitative Risk Analysis process. You have identified cost, schedule, functionality, and quality risks and assigned each of them a risk ranking of high, medium, or low. Which of the following statements is true? Choose the best answer.
Cost, schedule, functionality, and quality risks can be evaluated separately using their own independent ratings.
Cost, schedule, functionality, and quality risks require both qualitative and quantitative analysis because of their impacts to the project objectives.
Cost, schedule, functionality, and quality risks are risk categories, which are an input to this process.
The risk rankings assigned to cost, schedule, functionality, and quality risk rankings are cardinal values.
You have received estimates for one of your project tasks as follows: The pessimistic estimate is 24 days, the optimistic estimate is 18 days, and the most likely estimate is 20 days. What is the standard deviation?
The correct order of performing the Schedule Development, Cost Budgeting, and Project Plan Development processes is which of the following?
Schedule Development and Project Plan Development can be performed independently, as long as they are both performed before the Cost Budgeting process begins.
Schedule Development must be performed prior to Cost Budgeting, which must be performed before the Project Plan Development process begins.
Cost Budgeting must be performed prior to Schedule Development, which must be performed before the Project Plan Development process begins.
Schedule Development and Cost Budgeting can be performed independently, as long as they are both performed before the Project Plan Development process begins.
Which of the following statements explains one of the purposes of the Team Development process? Choose the best answer.
To create an open environment for stakeholders and team members to contribute
To create a disciplined environment for team members to contribute
To create a collocated environment for team members to contribute
To create a collocated, disciplined environment for stakeholders and team members to contribute
One of the factors this theory proposes is the importance of friendship and a sense of camaraderie with other team members. Which theory does this describe?
What three types of reports are used in the Performance Reporting process?
Earned value analysis, variance analysis, and trend analysis
Project plan updates, work results, and performance reports
Performance reviews, performance reports, and work results
Status reports, progress reports, and forecasting
Performance measurements are a tool and technique of the Schedule Control process. Which of the following measurements pertain to the Schedule Control process?
Your organization is experiencing a shakeup at the top levels of management. Your project team has expressed concerns that their project may be cancelled because of the changes going on at the top. Sure enough, your project team was correct in their suspicions. Youve received notice that the project is canceled. Your vendor only has one remaining deliverable for the project scheduled for completion next month. You notify the vendor in writing that the project has been canceled, but you understand there is one more deliverable they need to complete in order to close out the contract. You also notify them that the Phase II portion of the project has been canceled , so current contract negotiations for that portion of the project will end immediately. All of the following processes should be performed given the circumstances in this question except:
Which of the following statements is not true regarding the Scope Definition process?
The Scope Definition process is critical for project success.
The Scope Definition process improves cost, duration, and resource estimate accuracy.
The Scope Definition process allows the project manager to make clear responsibility assignments.
The Scope Definition process allows for constituent components to be decomposed to the deliverable level.