1.2. What's Not in This Book
This book is not a reference, although some reference material is included where it helps explain concepts. Detailed reference information is available in Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Books Online, which is installed by default with SQL Server 2005 and accessed by selecting Start All Programs Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Documentation and Tutorials SQL Server Books Online. This book does not cover SQL Server 2005 administration or migrating from SQL Server 2000 to SQL Server 2005.
Chapter 2. Tools and Utilities
SQL Server 2005 introduces new and enhanced tools and command-line utilities. This chapter provides an overview of those tools and utilities. It focuses on new features and enhancements, and information most relevant to programming SQL Server and programmatically administering SQL Server. For detailed information about these tools and utilities, see Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Books Online.
2.1. SQL Server Management Studio
SQL Server Management Studio is an integrated environment for accessing, configuring, managing, and administering SQL Server and for developing SQL Server objects. Management Studio works with all SQL Server components, including Report Services, Data Transformation Services, SQL Server Mobile, and Notification Services.
Launch SQL Server Management Studio by selecting Start All Programs Microsoft SQL Server 2005 SQL Server Management Studio from the taskbar. The Connect to Server dialog box opens, prompting you for server information and credentials. Fill in the required information and click the Connect button. Figure 2-1 shows SQL Server Management Studio.
SQL Server Management Studio displays two panes by default:
These and other windows can be added using the View menu. The various windows are described in the following subsections.
Figure 2-1. SQL Server Management Studio
2.1.1. Registered Servers
The Registered Servers window lists servers that you have previously registered, optionally organized into server groupsa hierarchical structure used to help manage registered servers. A registered server preserves connection information and lets you easily determine whether the servers are running, access Object Explorer and Query Editor for the servers, and provide user-friendly names together with detailed descriptions for the servers.
The toolbar below the main menu lets you switch between the five types of registered servers that you can manage (listed in order from left to right):
You can also switch the type of registered server by using the View Registered Server Types menu item.
The Registered Servers context menu has the options described in Table 2-1.
2.1.2. Object Explorer
Object Explorer connects to Database Engine, Analysis Services, Integration Services, Reporting Services, and SQL Server Mobile instances. It organizes all objects on the database instance into a tree hierarchy and lets you manage them. Object Explorer is visible by default. Select View Object Explorer if it is not visible.
The toolbar at the top of the Object Explorer window has five buttons (described from left to right):
Only one item can be selected at a time in the Object Explorer tree view. The Summary Page lets you select multiple items and perform actions on the selected group. Open the Summary Page by selecting View Summary from the main Management Studio menu or by clicking the Summary button on the Standard toolbar.
To hide system objects in Object Explorer, select Tools Options from the Management Studio menu, select Environment General from the tree in the left panel of the Options dialog box, and then check the Hide System objects in Object Explorer checkbox. You must restart SQL Server Management Studio for the changes to take effect.
The following subsections describe the types of nodes in Object Explorer and the activities that you can perform at each type of node.
184.108.40.206. Database server instance
The database server instance represents a SQL Server installation. The context menu for the database server instance lets you connect to and disconnect from a server, register a new server, create a query, manage the SQL Server service for the instance, refresh the tree hierarchy, and manage the properties for the server.
220.127.116.11. Databases node
The Databases node contains system databases, database snapshots, and user databases. Database snapshots are new in SQL Server 2005 and let you create a read-only static view of a database. Create a snapshot by using the CREATE DATABASE T-SQL statement with the AS SNAPSHOT clause.
Figure 2-4 shows the hierarchy of objects under the Databases node.
From the Databases node you can create a new database, attach a database by selecting its database files, or restore a database, file, or file group.
You can create a query from a named database node. Right-click on the database node and select New Query from the context menu to launch Query Editor . Query Editor opens a code pane in which you can enter T-SQL statements. After you execute the statement by selecting Query Execute from the main menu, by right-clicking in the Query Editor code pane and selecting Execute from the context menu, or by pressing F5, two additional tabs are displayed:
Query Editor is shown in Figure 2-5.
Query Designer is a visual tool that lets you design SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE DML statements. After you open Query Editor, you can launch Query Designer either by selecting Query Design Query in Editor from the SQL Server Management Studio menu or by right-clicking the Query Editor code pane and selecting Design Query in Editor from context menu. The Add Table dialog box is displayed, letting you select tables to query; you can also add or remove tables while you are designing the query. Once you click the Close button, Query Designer shows three panesdiagram, criteria, and SQLas shown in Figure 2-6.
You can create the query by using the three panes at the same time. Right-click in the diagram area (top pane) to open a context menu that lets you change the query type, add tables, and change the grouping of results. Relationships are created automatically if they exist in the database. You can also drag one or more columns from one table to another to create relationships between tables. Select columns to display in the query by using the checkboxes next to the column names.
Once you have completed the query design, click the OK button to transfer the generated T-SQL to Query Editor, where you can execute the query. Select the T-SQL in Query Editor, open Query Designer, and the selected T-SQL will be parsed automatically into a diagram.
Figure 2-4. Object Explorer Databases node hierarchy
Figure 2-5. Query Editor
Figure 2-6. Query Designer
You can create database diagrams from the Database Diagrams node (refer to Figure 2-4). Select New Database Diagram from the context menu to launch Database Diagram Designer, a visual tool that lets you create, edit, and delete tables, columns, indexes, constraints, and relationships. You can automatically create one or more diagrams for an existing databaseSQL Server keeps diagrams synchronized with the database. Figure 2-7 shows part of a database diagram for the AdventureWorks database.
Figure 2-7. Database Diagram Designer
You can also create a new table or edit an existing table by using Table Designer . Select New Table or Modify, respectively, from the Table context menu. Table Designer has two panes. The upper pane is a grid in which each row describes a column in the table. The lower pane shows additional column properties for the column selected in the upper grid. Figure 2-8 shows Table Designer for the Person.Contact table in the AdventureWorks database.
You can use Table Designer to modify indexes, constraints, and relationships by selecting the appropriate option from the context menu.
Figure 2-8. Table Designer
You can view and modify data in the table by selecting Open Table from the table's context menu. This brings up a data grid for the table. Figure 2-9 shows the data grid for the Person.Contact table in the AdventureWorks database.
Figure 2-9. Table data viewer and editor
Other nodes in the Databases hierarchy allow you to create, manage, and drop the objects within the node as well as perform other object-specific tasks.
18.104.22.168. Security node
The Security node lets you manage server logins, server roles, and credentials. Figure 2-10 shows the hierarchy of objects under the Security node.
Figure 2-10. Object Explorer Security node hierarchy
22.214.171.124. Server Objects node
The Server Objects node lets you manage backup devices, endpoints, linked servers, and server DDL triggers. Figure 2-11 shows the hierarchy of objects under the Server Objects node.
Figure 2-11. Object Explorer Server Objects node hierarchy
126.96.36.199. Replication node
The Replication node lets you manage local publications and subscriptions. Figure 2-12 shows the hierarchy of objects under the Replication node.
Figure 2-12. Object Explorer Replication node hierarchy
188.8.131.52. Management node
The Management node lets you manage maintenance plans, server logs, Database Mail, the Distributed Transaction Coordinator, Full-Text Search, and legacy objects. It also provides access to Activity Monitor, which provides information about processes and locks. Figure 2-13 shows the hierarchy of objects under the Management node.
184.108.40.206. Notification Services node
The Notification Services node lets you manage Notification Services instances.
220.127.116.11. SQL Server Agent node
The SQL Server Agent node lets you manage jobs, alerts, operators, and proxies and provides access to SQL Server Agent error logs and the SQL Server Agent Job Activity Monitor. Figure 2-14 shows the hierarchy of objects under the SQL Server Agent node.
Figure 2-13. Object Explorer Management node hierarchy
Figure 2-14. Object Explorer SQL Server Agent node hierarchy
2.1.3. Template Explorer
Script templates contain T-SQL statements for performing a variety of common tasks. Open Template Explorer by selecting View Template Explorer from the main menu or by clicking the Template Explorer button on the Standard toolbar. Figure 2-15 shows the Template Explorer window.
Figure 2-15. Template Explorer
Template Explorer uses a tree structure to organize templates into folders. The bottom of the window saves a list of recently used templates.
The toolbar at the top of the Template Explorer window has three buttons that let you select templates for Database Engine, Analysis Server, or SQL Server Mobile, respectively.
Templates are parameterized to help you customize the code. Parameter definitions follow the format <parameter_name,data_type,value>, with values as follows:
The create database template (from the Database folder) follows:
-- ============================================= -- Create database template -- ============================================= USE master GO -- Drop the database if it already exists IF EXISTS ( SELECT name FROM sys.databases WHERE name = N'<Database_Name, sysname, Database_Name>' ) DROP DATABASE <Database_Name, sysname, Database_Name> GO CREATE DATABASE <Database_Name, sysname, Database_Name> GO
This script has a single parameter, <Database_Name, sysname, Database_Name>. To replace the parameter, select Query Specify Values for Template Parameters from the main menu, or click the corresponding button on the SQL Editor toolbar. This displays the Specify Values for Template Parameters dialog box, shown in Figure 2-16.
Figure 2-16. Specify Values for Template Parameters dialog box
Replace the value of the Database_Name parameter with the value ProgrammingSqlServer2005 and click the OK button. The script is updated for the parameter value as follows:
-- ============================================= -- Create database template -- ============================================= USE master GO -- Drop the database if it already exists IF EXISTS ( SELECT name FROM sys.databases WHERE name = N'ProgrammingSqlServer2005' ) DROP DATABASE ProgrammingSqlServer2005 GO CREATE DATABASE ProgrammingSqlServer2005 GO
Note that once you set a parameter value, it is permanently replaced and can no longer be accessed.
You can create custom templates in Template Explorer, as well. Follow these steps:
2.1.4. Solution Explorer
The Solution Explorer window of SQL Server Management Studio lets you view and manage items associated with a script project. Open Solution Explorer by selecting View Solution Explorer from the main menu.
SQL Server Management Studio lets you create three types of projectsSQL Server Scripts, Analysis Services Scripts, and SQL Server Mobile Scripts. You can group multiple projects into a solution. A project contains itemsconnection information, queries, scripts (sets of T-SQL statements stored in a file), and miscellaneous files relevant to the project. Solution Explorer lets you open each item in an appropriate editor. The property window located by default in the window below the Solution Explorer window lets you view and manage item properties.