Appendix A. Unix Reference


In this appendix, you'll find a fairly thorough reference on Unix commands and flags as well as examples and descriptions of each. We organized this appendix to generally parallel the book, so that you can easily reference key commands and related flags without being overwhelmed with long lists of commands.

Table A.a summarizes what you'll find in this appendix.

Table A.a. Summary of Appendix Tables

TABLE NUMBER

DESCRIPTION

Table A.1

Getting Started with Unix

Table A.2

Using Directories and Files

Table A.3

Working with Your Shell

Table A.4

Creating and Editing Files

Table A.5

Controlling File Ownership and Permissions

Table A.6

Manipulating Files

Table A.7

Getting Information About Your System

Table A.8

Configuring Your Unix Environment

Table A.9

Running Scripts and Programs

Table A.10

Writing Basic Scripts

Table A.11

Sending and Reading Email

Table A.12

Accessing the Internet

Table A.13

Working with Encoded and Compressed Files

Table A.14

Installing Software

Table A.15

Using Handy Utilities


Tables A.1A.15 contain commands and flags that relate to the topics covered by the similarly numbered chapter (Chapters 16 and 17 do not introduce many new commands, so the commands from those chapters are included with similar commands in the other appendixes). In addition to the commands and flags discussed in the chapters, you'll also find related commands and options that you might find useful in your Unix adventures, reference information that will jog your memory, and ideas to help you get off and running on additional projects. If you're looking for a thorough command flag reference, check out Appendix C.

Table A.1. Getting Started with Unix: Survival Skills

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

apropos keyword

Find appropriate man pages for keyword.

cat file

Display file contents onscreen or provide file contents to standard output.

cat file1 file2

Display file1 and file2.

cd

Return to your home directory from anywhere in the Unix system.

cd ..

Move up one level in the directory tree.

cd /etc

Change to the /etc directory relative to the system root.

cd ~/subdir

Use a tilde (~) as a handy shortcut for your home directory.

cd Projects

Move to the Projects directory relative to the current directory.

col -b

Filter backspaces and reverse line feeds out of input. Use to make man pages editable without odd formatting.

Close your current process (often a shell) and your Unix session if you close the login shell.

exit

Close your current shell and your Unix session if you're in the login shell.

less file

Use to view file screen by screen.

logout

Close your Unix session.

ls

List files and directories.

ls /

List the files and directories in the root directory.

ls directory

List the files and directories in directory.

ls -a

List all files and directories, including hidden ones.

ls -c

List files and directories by modification date.

ls -l

List files and directories in long format, with extra information.

ls -lh

List files and directories in long format, with extra information and human readable sizes.

man 5 command

View the specified section (5) of the man pages for command. Sometimes used as man -s 5 command.

man command

View the manual (help) pages for command.

man -k keyword

Find appropriate man pages for keyword.

more filetoview

View filetoview screen by screen.

passwd

Change your password.

pwd

Display the path and name of the directory you are currently in.

reset

Reset the shell to fix display problems.

stty sane

Try to fix unexpected, sudden, and strange display problems.

su - yourid

Relog in without having to log out.

su

Become the root user.

sudo command

Run command with the authority of the root user.


Table A.2. Using Directories and Files

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

cp existingfile newfile

Copy existingfile to a file named newfile.

cp -i existingfile oldfile

Copy existingfile to a file named newfile, prompting you before overwriting existing files.

cp -r /Projects /shared/Projects

Copy the directory /Projects to the new name /shared/Projects, specifying recursive copy.

find . -name lostfile -print

Find a file or directory in the current directory or subdirectories named lostfile.

find /home -name "pending*" -print

Find all files or directories with names starting with "pending" in the home directory or subdirectories.

find /home/shared -mtime -3 -print

Find all files or directories in the shared directory that were modified within the past three days.

find ~ -name '*.backup' -exec compress {} \;

Compress all files in the home directory with names containing ".backup," without confirmation.

find ~ -name '*.backup' -ok rm {} \;

Find and remove, with confirmation, all files in the home directory whose names end with ".backup".

ln /home/a /home/b

Hard link all of the files in the a directory to the files in the b directory.

ln afile alink

Link afile and alink, making the same file essentially exist in two different directories.

ln -s /home/deb/Projects /home/helper/Project

Create a soft link from /home/deb/Projects to /home/helper/Project.

locate string

Locate files with string in their names.

mkdir Newdirectory

Make a new directory named Newdirectory.

mv existingfile newfile

Rename existingfile to newfile.

mv -i oldfile newfile

Rename oldfile to newfile, requiring the system to prompt you before overwriting (destroying) existing files.

rm badfile

Remove badfile.

rm -i *

Delete interactively, with prompting before deletion. Good for files with problematic names that Unix thinks are command flags.

rm -i badfile

Remove badfile interactively.

rm -ir dan*

Interactively remove all the directories or files that start with "dan" in the current directory and all of the files and subdirectories in the subdirectories starting with "dan".

rmdir Yourdirectory

Remove the empty directory Yourdirectory.

touch newfile

Create a file named newfile with no content.

touch -t 200112312359 oldfile

Update file date for oldfile to December 31, 23 hours, and 59 minutes in 2001.

which command

Find out the full path to command. This is valuable for seeing which of multiple commands with the same name would be executed.

whereis file

Find out the full path to file and related files.


Table A.3. Working with Your Shell

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

!10

Rerun command 10 from the history list in csh or zsh.

bash

Start a bash subshell or run a bash script.

chsh

Change your shell.

csh

Start a csh (C) subshell or run a csh shell script.

echo $SHELL

Display the value of the $SHELL environment variable.

exit

Leave the current shell and return to the previous one, or log out of the login shell.

history

View a numbered list of previous commands.

ksh

Start a ksh (Korn) subshell or run a ksh shell script.

r 2

Repeat a specific command in ksh from the history output (in this case command 2).

set -o emacs

Enable command completion with emacs commands in the ksh shell.

set -o vi

Enable command completion with vi commands in the ksh shell.

sh

Start a sh (Bourne) subshell or run a sh shell script.

stty erase '^?'

Make erase characters to the left of the cursor.

stty erase '^H'

Make erase characters to the left of the cursor. Type stty erase then press .

su - yourid

Start a new login shell as yourid.

su user

Switch user to user.

tcsh

Start a tcsh subshell or run a tcsh shell script.

zsh

Start a zsh subshell or run a zsh shell script.


Table A.4. Creating and Editing Files

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

ed

Choose a line-oriented text editor.

emacs

Choose a tremendously powerful, somewhat easy to use text editor.

emacs -n

Open emacs and force a terminal-window- (not graphical window-) oriented session.

emacs filename

Open emacs and edit filename.

joe

Choose a fairly friendly editor.

pico

Choose for menu-oriented, user-friendly text editing.

pico filename

Open and edit filename in pico.

pico -w filename

Disable word wrapping for filename in pico. This is particularly useful for configuration files.

vi

Choose a powerful editor with lots of power but little ease of use.

vi filename

Open and edit filename in vi.


Table A.5. Controlling File Ownership and Permissions

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

chgrp

Change the group association of files or directories.

chgrp groupname filename

Change the group association of filename to groupname.

chgrp -R group directory

Recursively change the group association of directory and all subdirectories and files within it to group.

chmod

Change the permissions for a file or directory.

chmod a-w file

Remove write permission for file for all (everyone).

chmod g+w file

Add write permission for file for the owning group.

chmod -R go-rwx *

Revoke all permissions from everyone except the user for all files in the current directory and all subdirectories and their contents.

chmod u=rwx, g=rx, o=r file

Set the permissions on file to user read, write, and execute, group read and write, and others read.

chmod ugo= *

Revoke all permissions for everything in the current directory from everyone.

chown

Change the ownership of files or directories.

chown -R user Directory

Recursively change the ownership of Directory and all contents to user.

chown user file

Change the ownership of file to user.

umask 022

Specify the default permissions for all created files.


Table A.6. Manipulating Files

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

awk

Manipulate a file as a database.

awk /CA/'{ print $2 $1 $7 }' file

Select (and display) three fields in each record in file on lines that contain "CA".

awk '{ print $1 }' file

Select (and display) the first field in each record in file.

awk -f script.awk file

Run an awk command from a script called script.awk on file.

awk -F, '{ print $1 }' file > newfile

Select the first field in each record in file, specifying that a "," separates fields, and redirect the output to newfile.

awk -F: '{ print $2 "" $1 "in" $7 }' file

Select (and display) several fields and some text for each record in file, using a colon (:) as a field delimiter.

basename

Remove the path from a filename, leaving only the name proper. Good to use in scripts to display just a filename.

cmp newfile oldfile

Compare newfile to oldfile.

crypt

Encrypt or decrypt a password-protected file.

csplit

Divide files based on line number or other characteristics.

diff -b newfile oldfile

Find differences (ignoring white space) between newfile and oldfile.

diff Directory Newdirectory

Find differences between Directory and Newdirectory.

diff -i newfile oldfile

Find differences (except in case) between newfile and oldfile.

diff -iBw file1 file2

Find all differences between file1 and file2 except those involving blank lines, spaces, tabs, or lowercase/uppercase letters.

diff newfile oldfile

Find the differences between newfile and oldfile.

diff -w newfile oldfile

Find differences (ignoring spaces) between newfile and oldfile.

fmt file

Reformat file so it has even lines and a nicer appearance.

fold -w 60 file

Reformat file so no lines exceed a specified length (60 characters here).

grep expression file

Find expression in file and view the lines containing expression.

grep -c expression file

Count how many times expression appears in file.

grep -i expression file

Find all lines containing expression in file, using any capitalization (case-insensitive).

grep -n expression file

Display each found line and a line number.

grep 'Nantucket$' limerick*

Find the lines in the limerick files that end with "Nantucket".

grep -v expression file

Find all lines in file that do not contain expression.

grep '^[A-Z, a-z]' limerick

Find all the lines in limerick that start with any letter, but not with a number or symbol.

grep '^[A-Z]' limerick

Find all the lines in limerick that start with a capital letter.

grep '^There' limerick*

Find all the lines in the limerick files that start with "There".

grep -5 'word[1234]' file

Find word1, word2, word3, or word4 in file and view the surrounding five lines as well as the lines containing the words.

head -20 file

View the first 20 lines of file.

head file

View the first 10 lines of file.

pr file

Reformat file for printing, complete with headers and footers.

pr -columns=2 file

Reformat file for printing, complete with headers and footers and two columns.

sdiff newfile oldfile

View the differences between newfile and oldfile.

sdiff -s newfile oldfile

View the differences between newfile and oldfile, without showing identical lines.

sed

Make changes throughout a file according to command-line input or a sed script.

sed '/old/new/g' file.htm > file.htm

Search through file.htm and replace every occurrence of "old" with "new".

sed -f script.sed file > file.new; mv

Run the commands in script.sed, apply them to file, and replace file with the manipulated content.

split b 500k file

Split file into 500 KB chunks.

sort file | uniq

Sort file and send it to uniq to eliminate duplicates.

sort file > sortedfile

Sort the lines in file alphabetically and present the sorted results in sortedfile.

sort file1 | tee sorted | mail boss@raycomm.com

Sort file1 and, with tee, send it both to the file sorted and to standard output, where it gets mailed to the boss.

sort file1 file2 | uniq -d

Sort file1 and file2 together and find all the lines that are duplicated.

sort file1 file2 file3 > bigfile

Sort and combine the contents of file1, file2, and file3 and put the sorted output in bigfile.

sort -n file

Sort file numerically.

sort -t, +2 file

Sort on the third (really) field in the comma-delimited file.

sort -t, file

Sort fields in the comma-delimited file; the character following -t (, ) indicates the delimiter.

spell file

Check the spelling of all words in file. Returns a list of possibly misspelled words.

tail -15 file

View the last 15 lines of file.

tail file

View the last 10 lines of file.

tidy file.html

Clean file.html to make it "good" HTML, and optionally also easier to read and maintain.

TR A-Za-z a-zA-Z < file

Change uppercase to lowercase and lowercase to uppercase.

uniq

Use with sorted files to eliminate duplicate lines.

wc -b file

Count the bytes in file.

wc file

Count the lines, words, and bytes in file.

wc -l file

Count the lines in file.

wc -w file

Count the words in file.


Table A.7. Getting Information About the System

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

df

See what file systems are mounted where, and how much space is used and available.

df /usr/local/src

Find out where /usr/local/src is mounted and how much space is available on it.

df -k /home

View the file system for /home with the usage reported in 1 KB, not 512-byte, blocks.

df -h /home

View the file system for /home with the usage reported in human-readable terms.

du

Get information about disk usage in the current directory as well as in all subdirectories.

du /home

Get information about disk usage in the /home directory.

du -k

Get information about disk usage, measured in 1 KB blocks.

du -h

Get information about disk usage, displayed in human-readable terms.

file /usr/bin/pico

Find out the file type of /usr/bin/pico.

finger

See who else is logged into the system and get a little information about them.

finger @stc.org

Find out who is logged into the stc.org system.

finger ejr

Get information about user ejr on your system.

finger ejray@xmission.com

Get information about user ejray@xmission.com.

id

Find out the numeric value of your userid and what groups (by name and numeric userid value) you belong to.

id otheruser

Check someone else's status to find out what groups they're in.

quota

Find out if you're over quota.

quota -v

View your current quota settings and space usage.

uname

Use to find out what kind of Unix system

uname -a

Print all system information, including the Unix system type, host name, version, and hardware.

uname -sr

Find both the system type and release level.

watch

Monitor a file or other data for changes.

w

Get information about other users on the system and what

who

Get information about the other users on the system.

whoami

Find out what userid you're currently logged in as.


Table A.8. Configuring Your Unix Environment

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

 alias ourterm="longhonking   command -w -many flags   arguments 


Create the alias ourterm to substitute for the command longhonking command -w-many -flags arguments.

set

Find out what environment variables are set and their current values in zsh, bash, and ksh.

set VARIABLE="long value"

Use in csh to set the value of VARIABLE with spaces or special characters in it.

set VARIABLE=value

Use in csh to set VARIABLE to value.

setenv

Use in csh to find out what environment variables are set and their current values.

setenv VARIABLE value

Use in csh to make the VARIABLE available to other scripts in the current shell.

VARIABLE="long value"

Use in zsh, bash, and ksh to set the value of VARIABLE with spaces or special characters in it.

VARIABLE=value

Use in zsh, bash, and ksh to set the VARIABLE to value.

export VARIABLE

Use in zsh, bash, and ksh to make the value of VARIABLE available to other scripts.


Table A.9. Running Scripts and Programs

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

at 01:01 1 Jan 2004

Schedule a job or jobs to run at 01:01 on January 1, 2004.

at 01/01/04

Schedule a job to run on 1/1/04.

at 3:42am

Schedule a job to run at 3:42 a.m.

at noon tomorrow

Schedule a job to run at noon tomorrow.

at now + 3 weeks

Schedule a job to run in three weeks.

at teatime

Schedule a job to run at 4 p.m.

atq

Review jobs in the at queue.

atrm 3

Remove the specified queued job (3, in this case).

batch

Schedule jobs to run when system load permits.

bg

Run the most recently suspended or controlled job in the background.

bg %2

Run job 2 in the background.

crontab -e

Edit your crontab in the default editor to schedule regular processes or jobs.

Suspend a running job, program, or process.

fg

Run the most recently suspended or controlled job in the foreground.

fg 1

Run job 1 in the foreground.

jobs

See a list of the currently controlled jobs.

kill %ftp

Kill a job by name or job number.

kill 16217

Kill process number 16217.

kill -9 16217

Kill process 16217; the -9 flag lets you kill processes that a regular kill won't affect.

nice

Run a job "nicely"slower and with less of an impact on the system and other users.

 

Bigger numbers are nicer, up to 19. 10 is the default.

nice -n 19 slowscript

Run slowscript nicely with a priority of 19.

pkill badjob

Kill the process called badjob.

ps

View the list of current processes that you're running

ps -e

View all processes, including those from other users.

ps -f

View processes and their interrelationships (the forest view).

ps -x

View the processes that the system itself is running (also called daemons).

 renice 19 processid-of  

Run slowscript more nicely (change the niceness) with a priority of 19.

time script

Time how long it takes (in real time and system time) to run script.

top

Monitor system load and processes in real time.


Table A.10. Writing Basic Scripts

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

break

Use in a shell script to skip the rest of the commands in the loop and restart at the beginning of the loop.

case ... in ... esac

Use in a shell script to perform separate actions for a variety of cases.

clear

Clear the screen.

continue

 

echo

Display a statement or the value of an environment variable onscreen.

echo "Your shell is $SHELL"

Display "Your shell is" and the name of your shell onscreen.

echo -e "\tA Tab Stop"

Move one tab stop to the right and print "A Tab Stop" on the screen.

for ... do ... done

Use in a shell script with conditions and commands to specify a loop to occur repeatedly.

getopts

Use in a shell script to read flags from the command line.

if ... then ... else ... fi

Use in a script (with conditions and commands) to set a conditional process.

read variable

Use in a script to get input (the variable) from the terminal.

sh -x script

Execute script and require the script to display each command line as it is executed.

sleep 4h5m25s

Pause for 4 hours, 5 minutes, and 25 seconds here.

sleep 5s

Pause for 5 seconds.

test

Use in a script to check to see if a given statement is true.

test expression

See if expression is true or falseusually used with conditional statements.

while ... do ... done

Use in a shell script to perform a loop only while the condition is true.


Table A.11. Sending and Reading Email

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

elm

Start the elm mail program and read, respond to, or send email.

elm unixvqs2@raycomm.com

Start a new elm mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com.

elm unixvqs2@raycomm.com,info@raycomm.com

Start a new elm mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com and info@raycomm.com.

mail

Start the mail program. (Use pine or mutt rather than mail if possible.)

mail unixvqs2@raycomm.com < file

Send file to unixvqs2@raycomm.com.

mail unixvqs2@raycomm.com -s "For you!" < file

Send file to unixvqs2@raycomm.com with the subject "For you!".

mail unixvqs2@raycomm.com

Start a simple mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com.

mail unixvqs2@raycomm.com,info@raycomm.com

Start a simple mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com and info@raycomm.com.

mutt

Start the mutt mail program and read, respond to, or send email.

mutt unixvqs2@raycomm.com

Start a new mutt mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com.

mutt unixvqs2@raycomm.com -a file.tgz

Start a new mutt mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com and attach file.tgz.

mutt unixvqs2@raycomm.com,info@raycomm.com

Start a new mutt mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com and info@raycomm.com.

pine

Start the pine mail program and read, respond to, or send email, or to read Usenet newsgroups.

pine unixvqs2@raycomm.com,info@raycomm.com

Start a pine mail message to unixvqs2@raycomm.com and info@raycomm.com.

pine user@raycomm.com

Start a pine mail message to user@raycomm.com.

procmail

Filter and sort mail according to a "recipe." Run from the .forward file or automatically by the system.

vacation

Initialize vacation and edit the message template.

vacation -I

Start vacation and tell it to respond to incoming messages.

vacation -j

Start vacation and automatically respond to all messages.


Table A.12. Accessing the Internet

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

dig @nameserver.some.net www.raycomm.com

Look up the name www.raycomm.com from the name server nameserver.some.net.

dig x 192.168.12.52

Look up the name corresponding to the IP number 192.168.12.52.

ftp ftp.raycomm.com

Transfer files to or from ftp.raycomm.com using the FTP protocol.

irc wazoo irc.netcom.com

Connect to the irc server at irc.netcom.com and use the nickname wazoo.

links

Start the links Web browser.

links http://www.google.com/

Start the links Web browser at http://www.google.com/.

lynx -dump http://url.com > newname.txt

Get a spiffy plain text file named newname.txt out of an HTML document from http://url.com.

lynx

Start the lynx Web browser.

lynx http://www.yahoo.com/

Start the lynx Web browser on http://www.yahoo.com/.

mesg n

Refuse talk and write messages.

mesg y

Accept talk and write messages.

nn

Read Usenet news.

nslookup www.raycomm.com

Look up the name www.raycomm.com from the name server nameserver.some.net.

nslookup www.raycomm.com

Look up the IP number for the host www.raycomm.com.

ping www.raycomm.com

Test the connection to the host www.raycomm.com.

rn

Read Usenet news.

ssh somewhere.com

Securely connect to and use a computer on the Internet named somewhere.com.

slrn

Read Usenet news.

talk deb

Talk interactively with the owner of the ID deb.

talk id@wherever.com

Talk interactively with a user id the system wherever.com.

telnet somewhere.com

Connect to and use a computer on the Internet named somewhere.com.

tin

Read Usenet news.

tin comp.unix.userfriendly

Read Usenet news from the comp.unix.userfriendly group.

tn3270 library.wherever.edu

Connect to a host computer named library.wherever.edu that uses an IBM-mainframe-type operating system, like many library card catalogs.

TRaceroute www.yahoo.com

Identify the computers and other devices between you and the host www.yahoo.com.

traceroute -n hostname

Check the path to hostname without resolving the intervening host names for faster results.

trn

Read Usenet news.

trn comp.unix.shell

Read Usenet news from the comp.unix.shell group.

wall

Send a write-type message to all users on the system.

wget http://www.example.com/

Download the file found at http://www.example.com/.

wget r l 2 http://www.example.com/

Download the files found at http://www.example.com/ for two levels down in the Web structure.

write otherid

Send a message to the user otherid on the same system.


Table A.13. Working with Encoded and Compressed Files

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

compress -c file.tar > file.tar.Z

Compress file.tar under the same name with a .Z ending while retaining the original file.

compress file.tar

Compress file.tar. The named file will be replaced with a file of same name ending with .Z.

gunzip archive.tar.gz

Uncompress (un-gzip) archive.tar.gz. Including .gz on the end of the filename is optional.

gzip archive.tar

Gzip (compress) archive.tar. The zipped file will replace the unzipped version and will have a new .gz extension

gzip -c filetogzip > compressed.gz

Gzip filetogzip and keep a copy of the original, unzipped file.

gzip -d

Uncompress (un-gzip) a file. Including .gz on the end of the filename is optional.

tar -cf newfile.tar Directory

Create a new tar archive containing all of the files and directories in Directory.

tar -czf newfile.tgz Directory

Create a new gzipped tar archive containing all of the files and directories in Directory.

tar -v

Add the -v flag to tar for a verbose description of what is happening.

tar -xf archive.tar "*file*"

Extract the files with names containing "file" from the tar archive.

tar -xf archive.tar

Extract the contents of archive.tar.

tar -xzf archive.tgz

Uncompress and extract the contents of archive.tgz.

uncompress archive.tar.Z

Uncompress archive.tar.Z, resulting in a file of the same name but without the .Z ending.

uncompress -c archive.tar.Z > archive.tar

Uncompress archive.tar.Z and retain the original file.

unzip zipped

Unzip zipped without specifying the extension.

uudecode file.uue

Uudecode file.uue.

uuencode afile.jpg a.jpg > tosend.uue

Uuencode afile.jpg and a.jpg and save the encoded output as tosent.uue.

uuencode -m

Use uuencode with the -m flag to specify base64 encoding, if your version of uuencode supports it.

gzcat archive.gz | more

Uncompress (on the fly without deleting the original) archive.gz to read the contents.

zip zipped file

Create a new zip file named zipped from file.

yencode file

Create a new yencoded file from file.


Table A.14. Installing Software

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

make

Set up, link, and compile new programs.

make clean

Clear out the garbage from a messed-up installation before you try again.

make install

Complete installation of new programs.


Table A.15. Using Handy Utilities

COMMAND

DESCRIPTION

bc

Use a calculator to add, subtract, multiply, divide, and more.

bc bcfile

Do the calculations specified in bcfile, then more calculations from the command line.

expr

Evaluate mathematical or logical expressions.

cal

View the current month's calendar.

cal 12 1941

View the calendar for December 1941.

cal 1999

View the calendar for 1999.

cal -j

View the Julian calendar.

calendar

View reminders for the current date, read from the file ~/calendar.

fortune

Display a fortune, saying, quotation, or whatever happens to come up.

ispell gudspeler

Interactively spell-check the gudspeler file.

look

Look up a word in the system dictionary.

lp

Print a file.

rsync file backupfile

Remotely synchronize (copy) file to backupfile.

script

Record your actions in a file called typescript in the current directory.

script covermybutt

Record your actions in the file covermybutt.

units

Convert from one kind of unit to another.





Unix(c) Visual Quickstart Guide
UNIX, Third Edition
ISBN: 0321442458
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2006
Pages: 251

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