Independent of how team members rank on the relationship and motivation scales , the ultimate test is how they execute the various processes of the project. Project success is primarily measured in terms of the triple constraints. These success factors deal with the nature and attributes of the product or service as viewed by the client, or with the outward appearance of the product. Thus, success factors are derived from delivery of the project on time, within budget, and according to performance specifications (Figure 4.5). Additional success facets involve general client satisfaction, responsive product development or service delivery, the use of the full suite of the product's features by its intended clients, a positive impact on those who have used the product or service, and use of the product or service toward an improvement in organizational performance. Other important facets, which are usually not easily quantified or verbalized, include repeat or follow-on business, enhanced credibility with the client as a supplier, and referrals to other potential clients for future products or services. Team success factors can be grouped into management of things issues and people issues. Things issues include time management, cost management, scope management, risk management, change management, and integration. People issues include communication, collaboration, and conflict management. One must not lose sight of the fact that people issues affect things issues in indirect and profound ways because they are inextricably linked together. However, people issues are more difficult to measure and more subjective , even though they represent a significant weight in the overall success of the project (Rad and Levin, 2002).
Success of the team will depend on effective execution of all project management processes. To that end, for each element of Figure 4.5, three subelements must be identified, measured, and monitored (Figure 4.6): the existence of procedures and guidelines for that specific element, conformance of team members to these procedures and guidelines, and the efficacy of these guidelines when they are duly followed. Mature organizations place significant importance on following the process guidelines, as well as on the efficacy of these guidelines. With respect to the efficacy issue, if the objectives were not achieved even when the procedures were followed, the question would be whether the situation is a reflection of the lack of sophistication of the crew or a reflection of the appropriateness of the procedures. Conversely, if there was success in meeting the objectives of that element, one would need to know whether the success could be traced to the procedures or to sheer luck. Therefore, a detailed model of the success factors would need to rate the performance of each knowledge-area element based on all three subelements of existence, compliance, and efficacy of the processes for that knowledge area. Appendix 4D displays an instrument that can be used to determine the success factors of a team's activities based on the team attributes that are described here. It must be stressed that the results of such an instrument should be treated as a first approximation . A definitive evaluation of the team would involve extensive interviews with each of the team members and in-depth observation of the members' interaction pattern.