Visual C Language: Code fortheAILogicofTic-Tac-Toe

Visual C++ Language: Code for the AI Logic of Tic-Tac-Toe

#include "stdafx.h" #include "TicTacToeLogic.h" #include <time.h> #include <mmsystem.h> #define IDB_SMBOARD    140 #define IDB_BIGO         141 #define IDB_BIGX         142 #define IDB_SMALLO       143 #define IDB_SMALLX       144 #define IDB_BOARD        145 // extern(al) variables or variables that are defined in another file extern CString           m_msg1,m_msg2,m_moves; extern HINSTANCE         m_hInstance; extern int               Setbuttons; extern HDC               my_hDC; // Set the Global variables char                     Path[100]; int                      ttt[10][9], wp[8][3], BigBoxXY[9][3],                            SmBoxXY[9][3]; int                      playerMark, playerDONE, PmouseX, PmouseY; char                     squote[2]={(char)39,(char)0}; // ' single                           quote HBITMAP                  markX, markO, smarkx, smarko; HBITMAP                  BigBoard, SmBoard; int                      Clevel, L1nextspace, Level1Data[10]; unsigned int             randseed; ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void LoadBMPs() {   markX = ::LoadBitmap(m_hInstance,MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDB_BIGX));   markO = ::LoadBitmap(m_hInstance,MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDB_BIGO));   smarkx = ::LoadBitmap(m_hInstance,MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDB_SMALLX));   smarko = ::LoadBitmap(m_hInstance,MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDB_SMALLO));   BigBoard = ::LoadBitmap(m_hInstance,MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDB_BOARD));   SmBoard = ::LoadBitmap(m_hInstance,MAKEINTRESOURCE(IDB_SMBOARD)); } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void InitVariables() { int     i, j;   Clevel = 0; // Initialize the Tic-Tac-Toe boards (all levels) to Zeor   for(i = 0; i <= 9; i++)     for(j = 0; j <= 8; j++)       ttt[ i ][ j ] = 0; // We start the arrays at Zero to match our C-code // Rows   wp[ 0 ][ 0 ] = 0; wp[ 0 ][ 1 ] = 1; wp[ 0 ][ 2 ] = 2;   wp[ 1 ][ 0 ] = 3; wp[ 1 ][ 1 ] = 4; wp[ 1 ][ 2 ] = 5;   wp[ 2 ][ 0 ] = 6; wp[ 2 ][ 1 ] = 7; wp[ 2 ][ 2 ] = 8; // Columns   wp[ 3 ][ 0 ] = 0; wp[ 3 ][ 1 ] = 3; wp[ 3 ][ 2 ] = 6;   wp[ 4 ][ 0 ] = 1; wp[ 4 ][ 1 ] = 4; wp[ 4 ][ 2 ] = 7;   wp[ 5 ][ 0 ] = 2; wp[ 5 ][ 1 ] = 5; wp[ 5 ][ 2 ] = 8; // Diagonals   wp[ 6 ][ 0 ] = 0; wp[ 6 ][ 1 ] = 4; wp[ 6 ][ 2 ] = 8;   wp[ 7 ][ 0 ] = 2; wp[ 7 ][ 1 ] = 4; wp[ 7 ][ 2 ] = 6; // Define our two Tic-Tac-Toe boards   int xoff1= 260,xoff2=40,yoff1=6,yoff2=210;   BigBoxXY[ 0 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 0; BigBoxXY[ 0 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 0;   BigBoxXY[ 1 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 125; BigBoxXY[ 1 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 0;   BigBoxXY[ 2 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 243; BigBoxXY[ 2 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 0;   BigBoxXY[ 3 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 0; BigBoxXY[ 3 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 101;   BigBoxXY[ 4 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 125; BigBoxXY[ 4 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 101;   BigBoxXY[ 5 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 243; BigBoxXY[ 5 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 101;   BigBoxXY[ 6 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 0; BigBoxXY[ 6 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 196;   BigBoxXY[ 7 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 125; BigBoxXY[ 7 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 196;   BigBoxXY[ 8 ][ 0 ] = xoff1 + 243; BigBoxXY[ 8 ][ 1 ] = yoff1 + 196;   SmBoxXY[ 0 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 0; SmBoxXY[ 0 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 0;   SmBoxXY[ 1 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 22; SmBoxXY[ 1 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 0;   SmBoxXY[ 2 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 44; SmBoxXY[ 2 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 0;   SmBoxXY[ 3 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 0; SmBoxXY[ 3 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 22;   SmBoxXY[ 4 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 22; SmBoxXY[ 4 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 22;   SmBoxXY[ 5 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 44; SmBoxXY[ 5 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 22;   SmBoxXY[ 6 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 0; SmBoxXY[ 6 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 44;   SmBoxXY[ 7 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 22; SmBoxXY[ 7 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 44;   SmBoxXY[ 8 ][ 0 ] = xoff2 + 44; SmBoxXY[ 8 ][ 1 ] = yoff2 + 44;   setRandom(); // initialize the Random number function } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Copy a new Tic-Tac-Toe board starting with the previous board void Copy_ttt(int level) { int index; if( level < 1)return; if( level > 8)return; Clevel = level; // for small tic-tac-toe board   for( index = 0; index <= 8;index++)     ttt[ level ][ index ] = ttt[ level – 1 ][ index ]; } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Let's verify if there's an empty space to fill int SpaceEmpty(int level) { int index;   for(index = 0; index <= 8; index++)     if( ttt[level][index] == 0)       return( index + 1 );   return(0); //no empty space was found } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // A function to check if the current board position is a winning  // one for either player int IsThereaWin(int level, int MySide) { int ttWin, OppWin, MyWin, wpindex, i;   OppWin = -3 * MySide;   MyWin = 3 * MySide;   for(wpindex = 0; wpindex <= 7; wpindex++){ // for each win                            (3 rows, 3 columns and 2 diagonals)     ttWin = 0;     for(i = 0; i<= 2; i++) // add the 3 spaces as per direction                                to check       ttWin = ttWin + ttt[level][wp[wpindex][i]];     if( ttWin == MyWin)    // I have 3 connecting marks       return(100);         // I win plus space to move to     if( ttWin == OppWin) // Opponent can get 3 connecting marks       return(-100); // forced plus space to block   }   return(0); } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Let's check to see if there's a forced move to make // A forced move is a winning space or a blocking space to stop  // a loss int forced_Move(int level, int MySide) { int index, trys, OppWin, MyWin, FMove, sgn1;   OppWin = -3 * MySide;   MyWin = 3 * MySide;   for( trys = 0; trys<= 1; trys++)     for( index = 0; index <= 8; index++){     if( level > 0 )Copy_ttt (level);       if( ttt[level][index] == 0 ){ // empty space     if( trys == 0 )                 // Can we win on this turn       ttt[level][index] = MySide;     else                  // Can our opponent win if we don’t block       ttt[level][index] = -MySide;  // opponent     FMove = IsThereaWin(level, MySide);     if( FMove != 0 ){       sgn1 = 1;       if( FMove < 0 ) sgn1 = -1;       if( level > 0 ) Copy_ttt (level);       return (sgn1 * (abs(FMove) + index + 1));       }     }   }   if( level > 0 ) Copy_ttt (level);   return(0);                        //No forced move } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void Tic_Tac_Toe() { int X, MySide, spaceon, FMove, i;   X = 0;   MySide = -playerMark;   if( SpaceEmpty(0) > 0 ){         // Game still on // A forced move to win or to block a win is the best mark move     X = forced_Move(1, MySide);     spaceon = abs(X) % 100;         // -100 or +100 plus space to mark     if( X != 0 ){        // A forced move has been calculated       ttt[0][spaceon - 1] = MySide;       // either a '1' or a '-1'       m_moves=_T(" I marked space ");       m_moves+=REPitoa(spaceon,2);     } // X != 0 //find a space that’s not forced     if( X == 0 ){ // Initialize the level 1 available mark spaces to an extremely  // low value       for( i = 0; i <= 9; i++)         Level1Data[i] = -999; // Call the Min-Max Function where Alpha is very low and Beta is  // very high       X = MinMaxValue(1, MySide, -999, 999); // find the best move // find the best space to mark from the level 1 list of valid spaces // to mark         spaceon = SpaceEmpty(0) - 1;         X = -999;         for( i = 1; i <= 9; i++)         if( Level1Data[i] > X ){           spaceon = i;           X = Level1Data[i];         }         ttt[ 0 ][ spaceon – 1 ] = MySide;   // Mark the best space         m_moves+=_T(" I marked space ");         m_moves+=REPitoa(spaceon,2);     } // X == 0       m_msg2=_T("Marked ");       m_moves+=REPitoa(spaceon,2);       show_boards();     // display current path scenario of board   } // SpaceEmpty(0) > 0   show_boards();   playerDONE = 0;   FMove = IsThereaWin(0, playerMark);   if( FMove <= -100 ){ // Be prepared to see this message often     m_moves+=_T(" HURRAY! I WON!");     m_moves+=_T(" Play me again?");     m_moves+=_T("Would you like to play me again?");     playerDONE = 100;     Setbuttons= -2;    // Reset_Buttons     return;   } // FMove <= -100   if( FMove >= 100 ){  // You may never see this message     m_moves+=_T(" WOW! YOU");     m_moves+=squote;   // Place a ' within " "     m_moves+=_T("VE WON!");     m_moves+=_T(" Play me again?");     m_moves+=_T("Would you like to play me again?");     playerDONE = 100;     Setbuttons= -2;    // Reset_Buttons     return;   }                    // FMove >= 100   if( FMove == 0 ){    // No win found and all spaces marked     playerDONE = 0;     m_msg1=_T("Your turn, please mark a space");     if( SpaceEmpty(0) == 0 ){ // no more empty spaces to mark       m_moves=_T(" DRAW!");       m_moves=_T(" Play me again?");       m_moves=_T("Would you like to play me again?");       Setbuttons= -2; // Reset_Buttons       return;     } // SpaceEmpty   } // FMove == 0 } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Just like a chess opening database, here are standard // Tic-Tac-Toe opening marks void opening() { int   i, j, k;   m_moves=_T(""); // Check to see if we go first and second   j = 0;   for (i = 0; i <= 8; i++ )     if( ttt[0, i] != 0 ){       j++;       k = i;     } // ttt[0, i] != 0   if( j > 1 ){     m_msg1=_T("");     Tic_Tac_Toe();       // find a space to mark     return;   }   if( j == 0 ){           // we go first     i = (int)(Random(5)); // valid first marks are spaces 1,3,5,7                            // and 9     i = i * 2;            // we have a random number 0 through 4                            // so we double it     ttt[0][i] = -playerMark;     m_msg2=_T("Marked ");     m_moves+=REPitoa(i + 1,2);     m_msg1=_T("I marked space ");     m_moves+=REPitoa(i + 1,2);     playerDONE = 0;     show_boards();     m_msg1=_T("Your turn, please mark a space");     // Player goes     return;   } // j == 0   if( j == 1 ){               // we go second // valid moves are center and the opposite corner if the opponent // marked a corner space     i = -1;                   // a flag     if( k == 4 && i == -1 ){  // center space marked       i=4 ;                   // can't mark the center space       while (i ==4)         i = (int)(Random(4)); // valid first marks are spaces 1,3,7                               // and 9         i = i * 2;            // we have a random number 0 through 4                               // so we double it     }                         // k == 4 && i == -1     if( i == -1 )             // center space was not marked       i = 4;                  // mark center space (space 5)       ttt[0][i] = -playerMark;     m_msg2=_T("Marked ");     m_msg2=REPitoa(i + 1,2);     m_moves=_T(" I marked space ");     m_moves+=REPitoa(i + 1,2);     playerDONE = 0;     show_boards();     m_msg1=_T("Your turn, please mark a space"); // Player goes     return;   } } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// int MinMaxValue(int level, int MySide, int alpha, int beta) { int WIN, index, nextspace, X, succval; long MTlist; // reset current level board   Copy_ttt (level);   if( SpaceEmpty(level) == 0 ) return( 0 ); // find a space that’s not forced // list all open spaces   MTlist = 0;  // List all the open (unmarked) spaces on this level   X = forced_Move(level, MySide); // Is there a forced move (a win                                    // or a block of a win)   if( X != 0 )                    // a forced move has been flagged     MTlist = abs(X % 100);        // space is 1 to 9  else{     for( index = 0; index <= 8; index++)       if( ttt[level][8 - index] == 0 ) // subtract from 8 for                                        // ascending order         MTlist = MTlist * 10 + (9 - index);     }                             // else   while (MTlist > 0){     nextspace = MTlist % 10;            // next space to mark     MTlist = (MTlist - nextspace) / 10; // remainder of possible                                         // spaces to mark     Copy_ttt (level);     ttt[level][nextspace - 1] = MySide;     m_msg2=_T("Marked ");     m_moves+=REPitoa(nextspace,2);     show_boards();     WIN = IsThereaWin(level, MySide);     if( WIN >= 100 )       succval = WIN;     else       succval = -MinMaxValue(level + 1, -MySide, -beta, -alpha);     if( level == 1 ){                     // Save this space’s value       Level1Data[ nextspace ] = succval;       if( succval == 100) return succval; // Winning line found     }                                     // level == 1 // The Alpha-Beta pruning code     if( succval >= beta ) return( beta );     if( succval > alpha ) alpha = succval;   }                                       // While   return( alpha );                        // return a draw } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Convert as number to a character array with a length of lval1  // (may have preceding zeroes) char *REPitoa(long val1, int lval1) { long x; int sgn=1, i, j, k, zeroflag=0; static char strx[10];   x= val1;   if((val1 == 0) && (lval1 == 99)) return("");   if(lval1 == 99) lval1= 0;   if(val1 < 0){sgn= -1; x= -val1;}  // flag and set to positive   if(lval1 < 0){     zeroflag= 1;                    // preceding zero     lval1= -lval1;   }   if(lval1 == 0){     while(x > 0){       lval1++;       x= x / 10L;                   // divide by 10 as a long     }     x= val1;   }   if((val1 == 0) && (lval1 == 0)) lval1=1;   if(lval1 > 9)lval1= 9;                // max length   for(i=0; i<10; i++) strx[i]= (char)0; // end string   if(x == 0){     for(i= 0; I < lval1; i++) strx[i]= '0';     return(&strx[0]);   }   j= 0;   for(i= 0; i < lval1; i++){     k= x % 10;       if(k > 0 && j == 0) j=1;       strx[lval1 - (1 + i)] = (char)((int)'0' + k);       if((zeroflag == 0) && (x == 0) && (j == 1))         strx[lval1 - (1 + i)]= (char)32; // blank left zeroes       x=x / 10;                          // must be after the "if"   }   return &strx[0]; } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// // Button 0        Play first as 'O' // Button 1        Play first as 'X' // Button 3        Play second as 'O' // Button 4    Play second as 'X' void buttontoplay(int buttonid) {   show_boards();   playerMark = (2 * (buttonid % 2)) - 1; // -1 is "O", 1 is "X"   playerDONE = 1;                        // Computer goes first   if( buttonid < 2){                     // Player’s turn     m_msg1=_T("Your turn, please mark a space");     playerDONE = 0;   }   else                                   // Computer’s turn     opening(); } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void Get_Mark() {   int i, flag;   if (playerDONE == 1)return;   flag = -1; // check the area the player has selected to mark   for (i = 0; i < 9; i++)     if ((PmouseX >= (BigBoxXY[i][0])) && (PmouseX <= (BigBoxXY[i][0]                   + 120)))       if ((PmouseY >= (BigBoxXY[i][1])) && (PmouseY <=                    (BigBoxXY[i][1] + 95)))         if( ttt[0][i] == 0){           ttt[0][i] = playerMark;           m_moves=_T("You marked space ");           m_moves+=REPitoa(i + 1,2);           m_msg2=_T( "Marked ");           m_msg2+=REPitoa(i + 1,2);           playerDONE = 1;           show_boards();           opening();           return;     } } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void setRandom() { // Seed the random-number generator with current time so that // the numbers will be different every time we run.   if(randseed == 0){     randseed= (unsigned int) timeGetTime();     srand( randseed );   } } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// int Random(int num) {   int r;   DWORD r1;   if(num == 0) num=1;   r1= rand();   r= (int)r1 % num;   return r; } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void show_boards() {     showSmallBoard();     showBigBoard(); } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void showBigBoard() {     int i, x, y;     HDC hMemDCO= ::CreateCompatibleDC(NULL);     HDC hMemDCX= ::CreateCompatibleDC(NULL);     HDC hMemDC = ::CreateCompatibleDC(NULL);   SelectObject(hMemDCO, markO);   SelectObject(hMemDCX, markX);   SelectObject(hMemDC, BigBoard);   ::StretchBlt(my_hDC, 260, 6, 367, 293, hMemDC, 0, 0, 367, 293,                   SRCCOPY);     for (i = 0; i<9; i++){       x= BigBoxXY[i][0];       y= BigBoxXY[i][1];       if (ttt[ 0 ][ I ] == 1)              // markX         ::StretchBlt(my_hDC, x, y, 113, 90, hMemDCX, 0, 0, 114, 90,                    SRCCOPY);       else         if (ttt[ 0 ][ I ] == -1)           // markO           ::StretchBlt(my_hDC, x, y, 114, 90, hMemDCO, 0, 0, 114, 90,                    SRCCOPY);     }     Clevel = 0;     DeleteDC(hMemDCO);     DeleteDC(hMemDCX);     DeleteDC(hMemDC); } ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// void showSmallBoard() {     int i,x,y;     HDC hMemDCo= ::CreateCompatibleDC(NULL);     HDC hMemDCx= ::CreateCompatibleDC(NULL);     HDC hMemDC = ::CreateCompatibleDC(NULL);   SelectObject(hMemDCo, smarko);   SelectObject(hMemDCx, smarkx);   SelectObject(hMemDC,  SmBoard);   ::StretchBlt(my_hDC, 40, 210, 64, 64, hMemDC, 0, 0, 64, 64,                   SRCCOPY);     for (i = 0; i<9; i++){       x= SmBoxXY[ i ][ 0 ];     y= SmBoxXY[ i ][ 1 ];       if (ttt[ Clevel ][ i ] == 1)      // smarkX         ::StretchBlt(my_hDC, x, y, 114, 90, hMemDCx, 0, 0, 114, 90,                    SRCCOPY);       else       if (ttt[ Clevel ][ i ] == -1)     // smarkO         ::StretchBlt(my_hDC, x, y, 18, 20, hMemDCo, 0, 0, 18, 20,                    SRCCOPY);     }     DeleteDC(hMemDCo);     DeleteDC(hMemDCx);     DeleteDC(hMemDC); }



Game Design Foundations
Game Design Foundations (Wordware Game and Graphics Library)
ISBN: 1556229739
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 179

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