A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access.
A digital document that is commonly used for authentication and to secure information on open networks. A certificate securely binds a public key to the entity that holds the corresponding private key. Certificates are digitally signed by the issuing certification authority (CA), and they can be issued for a user , a computer, or a service. See also certification authority (CA); private key; public key.
- certification authority (CA)
An entity responsible for establishing and vouching for the authenticity of public keys belonging to subjects (usually users or computers) or other certification authorities. Activities of a certification authority can include binding public keys to distinguished names through signed certificates, managing certificate serial numbers , and certificate revocation. See also certificate; public key.
- child domain
For DNS and Active Directory, a domain located in the namespace tree directly beneath another domain (the parent domain). For example, example.microsoft.com would be a child domain of the parent domain microsoft.com . Also known as a subdomain . See also Active Directory; domain; Domain Name System (DNS); parent domain.
A category of objects that share a common set of characteristics. Each object in the directory is an instance of one or more classes in the schema. See also schema.
- clean installation
The process of installing an operating system on a clean or empty partition of a computer s hard disk.
Any computer or program connecting to, or requesting the services of, another computer or program. Client can also refer to the software that enables the computer or program to establish the connection.
For a local area network (LAN) or the Internet, a computer that uses shared network resources provided by another computer (called a server ).
See also server.
- client authentication
A method of authentication by which the client in a client-server communication proves its identity to the server. See also client; server.
- client request
A service request from a client computer to a server computer or a cluster of server computers. See also client; server.
In data storage, the smallest amount of disk space that can be allocated to hold a file. All file systems used by Windows organize hard disks based on clusters, which consist of one or more contiguous sectors. The smaller the cluster size, the more efficiently a disk stores information. If no cluster size is specified during formatting, Windows picks defaults based on the size of the volume. These defaults are selected to reduce the amount of space that is lost and the amount of fragmentation on the volume. Also called an allocation unit .
In computer networking, a group of independent computers that work together to provide a common set of services and present a single-system image to clients . The use of a cluster enhances the availability of the services and the scalability and manageability of the operating system that provides the services.
See also availability; client; scalability.
- cluster storage
Storage where one or more attached disks hold data used either by server applications running on the cluster or by applications for managing the cluster. Each disk on the cluster storage is owned by only one node of the cluster. The ownership of disks moves from one node to another when the disk group fails over or moves to the other node. See also cluster; failover.
A text file that GUI-mode Setup executes when installing optional components , such as applications.
In Systems Management Server, a set of resources in a site defined by membership rules. Collections are used to distribute software, view inventory on clients, and access clients for remote tool sessions.
An extension of the COM (Component Object Model) programming architecture that includes a runtime or execution environment and extensible services, including transaction services, security, load balancing, and automatic memory management. See also Component Object Model (COM).
- Component Object Model (COM)
An object-based programming model designed to promote software interoperability; it allows two or more applications or components to easily cooperate with one another, even if they were written by different vendors , at different times, in different programming languages, or if they are running on different computers running different operating systems. OLE technology and ActiveX are both built on top of COM. See also ActiveX.
- Connection Manager
A client dialer used to obtain Internet access.
- Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK)
A tool for creating, editing, and managing Connection Manager profiles. The Connection Manager is a client dialer. See also Connection Manager.
- connection object
An Active Directory object that represents a replication connection from one domain controller to another. The connection object is a child of the replication destinations NTDS Settings object and identifies the replication source server, contains a replication schedule, and specifies a replication transport. Connection objects are created automatically by the Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC), but they can also be created manually. Automatically generated connections must not be modified by the user unless they are first converted into manual connections. See also Active Directory.
A framework for hosting administrative tools, such as Microsoft Management Console (MMC). A console is defined by the items in its console tree, which might include folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. A console has windows that can provide views of the console tree and the administrative properties, services, and events that are acted on by the items in the console tree. See also console tree; details pane; Microsoft Management Console (MMC).
- console tree
The left pane in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) that displays the items contained in the console. The items in the console tree and their hierarchical organization determine the capabilities of a console. See also details pane; Microsoft Management Console (MMC).
To eliminate Windows NT or Active Directory domains by merging their contents with that in other domains. See also Active Directory; domain.
- container object
An object that can logically contain other objects. For example, a folder is a container object. See also Active Directory.
In general, a set of information that includes identification and proof of identification that is used to gain access to local and network resources. Examples of credentials are user names and passwords, smart cards, and certificates.
For Microsoft Provisioning Framework (MPF), a domain, name, and password for an account. A procedure can be configured to use specific credentials to temporarily elevate a user s privileges so that a user can execute the procedure.