10 Locking Files


#10 Locking Files

Any script that reads or appends to a shared data file, such as a log file, needs a reliable way to lock the file so that other instantiations of the script don't step on the updates. The idea is that the existence of a separate lock file serves as a semaphore , an indicator that a different file is busy and cannot be used. The requesting script waits and tries again, hoping that the file will be freed up relatively promptly, denoted by having its lock file removed.

Lock files are tricky to work with, though, because many seemingly foolproof solutions fail to work properly. For example, the following is a typical approach to solving this problem:

 while [ -f $lockfile ] ; do   sleep 1 done touch $lockfile 

Seems like it would work, doesn't it? You loop until the lock file doesn't exist, then create it to ensure that you own the lock file and can therefore modify the base file safely. If another script with the same loop sees your lock, it will spin until the lock file vanishes. However, this doesn't in fact work, because while it seems that scripts are run without being swapped out while other processes take their turn , that's not actually true. Imagine what would happen if, just after the done in the loop just shown, but before the touch , this script was swapped out and put back in the processor queue while another script was run instead. That other script would dutifully test for the lock file, find it missing, and create its own version. Then the script in the queue would swap back in and do a touch , with the result that two scripts would both think they had exclusive access, which is bad.

Fortunately, Stephen van den Berg and Philip Guenther, authors of the popular procmail email filtering program, include a lockfile command that lets you safely and reliably work with lock files in shell scripts.

Many Unix distributions, including Linux and Mac OS X, have lockfile already installed. You can check whether your system has lockfile simply by typing man 1 lockfile . If you get a man page, you're in luck! If not, download the procmail package from http://www.procmail.org/ and install the lockfile command on your system. The script in this section assumes that you have the lockfile command, and subsequent scripts (particularly in Chapter 7, "Web and Internet Users") require the reliable locking mechanism of Script #10.

The Code

 #!/bin/sh # filelock - A flexible file locking mechanism. retries="10"            # default number of retries action="lock"           # default action nullcmd="/bin/true"     # null command for lockfile while getopts "lur:" opt; do   case $opt in     l ) action="lock"      ;;     u ) action="unlock"    ;;     r ) retries="$OPTARG"  ;;   esac done shift $(($OPTIND - 1)) if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then   cat << EOF >&2 Usage: 
 #!/bin/sh # filelock - A flexible file locking mechanism. retries="10" # default number of retries action="lock" # default action nullcmd="/bin/true" # null command for lockfile while getopts "lur:" opt; do case $opt in l ) action="lock" ;; u ) action="unlock" ;; r ) retries="$OPTARG" ;; esac done shift $(($OPTIND - 1)) if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then cat << EOF >&2 Usage: $0 [-l-u] [-r retries] lockfilename Where -l requests a lock (the default), -u requests an unlock, -r X specifies a maximum number of retries before it fails (default = $retries). EOF exit 1 fi # Ascertain whether we have lockf or lockfile system apps if [ -z "$(which lockfile  grep -v '^no ')" ] ; then echo "$0 failed: 'lockfile' utility not found in PATH." >&2 exit 1 fi if [ "$action" = "lock" ] ; then if ! lockfile -1 -r $retries "$1" 2> /dev/null; then echo "$0: Failed: Couldn't create lockfile in time" >&2 exit 1 fi else # action = unlock if [ ! -f "$1" ] ; then echo "$0: Warning: lockfile $1 doesn't exist to unlock" >&2 exit 1 fi rm -f "$1" fi exit 0 
[-l-u] [-r retries] lockfilename Where -l requests a lock (the default), -u requests an unlock, -r X specifies a maximum number of retries before it fails (default = $retries). EOF exit 1 fi # Ascertain whether we have lockf or lockfile system apps if [ -z "$(which lockfile grep -v '^no ')" ] ; then echo "
 #!/bin/sh # filelock - A flexible file locking mechanism. retries="10" # default number of retries action="lock" # default action nullcmd="/bin/true" # null command for lockfile while getopts "lur:" opt; do case $opt in l ) action="lock" ;; u ) action="unlock" ;; r ) retries="$OPTARG" ;; esac done shift $(($OPTIND - 1)) if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then cat << EOF >&2 Usage: $0 [-l-u] [-r retries] lockfilename Where -l requests a lock (the default), -u requests an unlock, -r X specifies a maximum number of retries before it fails (default = $retries). EOF exit 1 fi # Ascertain whether we have lockf or lockfile system apps if [ -z "$(which lockfile  grep -v '^no ')" ] ; then echo "$0 failed: 'lockfile' utility not found in PATH." >&2 exit 1 fi if [ "$action" = "lock" ] ; then if ! lockfile -1 -r $retries "$1" 2> /dev/null; then echo "$0: Failed: Couldn't create lockfile in time" >&2 exit 1 fi else # action = unlock if [ ! -f "$1" ] ; then echo "$0: Warning: lockfile $1 doesn't exist to unlock" >&2 exit 1 fi rm -f "$1" fi exit 0 
failed: 'lockfile' utility not found in PATH." >&2 exit 1 fi if [ "$action" = "lock" ] ; then if ! lockfile -1 -r $retries "" 2> /dev/null; then echo "
 #!/bin/sh # filelock - A flexible file locking mechanism. retries="10" # default number of retries action="lock" # default action nullcmd="/bin/true" # null command for lockfile while getopts "lur:" opt; do case $opt in l ) action="lock" ;; u ) action="unlock" ;; r ) retries="$OPTARG" ;; esac done shift $(($OPTIND - 1)) if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then cat << EOF >&2 Usage: $0 [-l-u] [-r retries] lockfilename Where -l requests a lock (the default), -u requests an unlock, -r X specifies a maximum number of retries before it fails (default = $retries). EOF exit 1 fi # Ascertain whether we have lockf or lockfile system apps if [ -z "$(which lockfile  grep -v '^no ')" ] ; then echo "$0 failed: 'lockfile' utility not found in PATH." >&2 exit 1 fi if [ "$action" = "lock" ] ; then if ! lockfile -1 -r $retries "$1" 2> /dev/null; then echo "$0: Failed: Couldn't create lockfile in time" >&2 exit 1 fi else # action = unlock if [ ! -f "$1" ] ; then echo "$0: Warning: lockfile $1 doesn't exist to unlock" >&2 exit 1 fi rm -f "$1" fi exit 0 
: Failed: Couldn't create lockfile in time" >&2 exit 1 fi else # action = unlock if [ ! -f "" ] ; then echo "
 #!/bin/sh # filelock - A flexible file locking mechanism. retries="10" # default number of retries action="lock" # default action nullcmd="/bin/true" # null command for lockfile while getopts "lur:" opt; do case $opt in l ) action="lock" ;; u ) action="unlock" ;; r ) retries="$OPTARG" ;; esac done shift $(($OPTIND - 1)) if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then cat << EOF >&2 Usage: $0 [-l-u] [-r retries] lockfilename Where -l requests a lock (the default), -u requests an unlock, -r X specifies a maximum number of retries before it fails (default = $retries). EOF exit 1 fi # Ascertain whether we have lockf or lockfile system apps if [ -z "$(which lockfile  grep -v '^no ')" ] ; then echo "$0 failed: 'lockfile' utility not found in PATH." >&2 exit 1 fi if [ "$action" = "lock" ] ; then if ! lockfile -1 -r $retries "$1" 2> /dev/null; then echo "$0: Failed: Couldn't create lockfile in time" >&2 exit 1 fi else # action = unlock if [ ! -f "$1" ] ; then echo "$0: Warning: lockfile $1 doesn't exist to unlock" >&2 exit 1 fi rm -f "$1" fi exit 0 
: Warning: lockfile doesn't exist to unlock" >&2 exit 1 fi rm -f "" fi exit 0

Running the Script

While the lockfile script isn't one that you'd ordinarily use by itself, you can try to test it by having two terminal windows open . To create a lock, simply specify the name of the file you want to try to lock as an argument of filelock . To remove the lock, add the -u flag.

The Results

First, create a locked file:

 $  filelock /tmp/exclusive.lck  $  ls -l /tmp/exclusive.lck  -r--r--r--  1 taylor  wheel  1 Mar 21 15:35 /tmp/exclusive.lck 

The second time you attempt to lock the file, filelock tries the default number of times (ten) and then fails, as follows :

 $  filelock /tmp/exclusive.lck  filelock : Failed: Couldn't create lockfile in time 

When the first process is done with the file, you can release the lock:

 $  filelock -u /tmp/exclusive.lck  

To see how the filelock script works with two terminals, run the unlock command in one window while the other window spins trying to establish its own exclusive lock.

Hacking the Script

Because this script relies on the existence of a lock file as proof that the lock is still enforced, it would be useful to have an additional parameter that is, say, the longest length of time for which a lock should be valid. If the lockfile routine times out, the last accessed time of the locked file could then be checked, and if the locked file is older than the value of this parameter, it can safely be deleted as a stray, perhaps with a warning message, perhaps not.

This is unlikely to affect you, but lockfile doesn't work with NFS-mounted disks. In fact, a reliable file locking mechanism on an NFS-mounted disk is quite complex. A better strategy that sidesteps the problem entirely is to create lock files only on local disks.




Wicked Cool Shell Scripts. 101 Scripts for Linux, Mac OS X, and Unix Systems
Wicked Cool Shell Scripts
ISBN: 1593270127
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 150
Authors: Dave Taylor

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