Chapter 10: Internet Server Administration


Many Linux, Unix, and Mac OS X readers wear several hats in their jobs, webmaster and web server administrator being just two of them. For others working on larger systems, the job of managing the server and service is completely separate from the job of designing and managing actual content on the website, FTP server, and so forth.

Chapter 9, "Website Administration," offered tools geared primarily toward webmasters and other content managers. This chapter, by contrast, shows how to analyze web server log files, mirror websites , monitor FTP usage and network health, and even add new virtual host accounts to allow additional domains to be served up from an existing web server.

#84 Exploring the Apache access_log

If you're running Apache or a similar web server that uses the Common Log Format, there's quite a bit of quick statistical analysis that can be done with a shell script. The standard configuration for a server has an access_log and error_log written for the site; even ISPs make these raw data files available to customers, but if you've got your own server, you should definitely have and be archiving this valuable information.

Table 10-1 lists the columns in an access_log .

Table 10-1: Field values in the access_log file

Column

Value

1

IP of host accessing the server

2 “3

Security information for https /SSL connections

4

Date and time zone offset of the specific request

5

Method invoked

6

URL requested

7

Protocol used

8

Result code

9

Number of bytes transferred

10

Referrer

11

Browser identification string

A typical line in an access_log looks like the following:

 63.203.109.38 - - [02/Sep/2003:09:51:09 -0700] "GET /custer HTTP/1.1" 301 248 "http://search.msn.com/results.asp?RS=CHECKED&FORM=MSNH& v=1&q=%22little+big+Horn%22" "Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.0)" 

The result code (field 8) of 301 indicates success. The referrer (field 10) indicates the URL of the page that the surfer was visiting immediately prior to the page request on this site: You can see that the user was at search.msn.com (MSN) and searched for "little big Horn." The results of that search included a link to the /custer URL on this server.

The number of hits to the site can be quickly ascertained by doing a word count on the log file, and the date range of entries in the file can be ascertained by comparing the first and last lines therein:

 $  wc -l access_log  10991 access_log $  head -1 access_log ; tail -1 access_log  64.12.96.106 - - [13/Sep/2003:18:02:54 -0600] ... 216.93.167.154 - - [15/Sep/2003:16:30:29 -0600] ... 

With these points in mind, here's a script that produces a number of useful statistics, given an Apache-format access_log log file.

The Script

 #!/bin/sh # webaccess - Analyzes an Apache-format access_log file, extracting #    useful and interesting statistics. bytes_in_gb=1048576 # You might need to adjust the following two to ensure that they point # to these scripts on your system (or just ensure they're in your PATH) scriptbc="$HOME/bin/scriptbc"    # from Script #9 nicenumber="$HOME/bin/nicenumber"    # from Script #4 # You will also want to change the following to match your own host name # to help weed out internally referred hits in the referrer analysis. host="intuitive.com" if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then   echo "Usage: $(basename 
 #!/bin/sh # webaccess - Analyzes an Apache-format access_log file, extracting # useful and interesting statistics. bytes_in_gb=1048576 # You might need to adjust the following two to ensure that they point # to these scripts on your system (or just ensure they're in your PATH) scriptbc="$HOME/bin/scriptbc" # from Script #9 nicenumber="$HOME/bin/nicenumber" # from Script #4 # You will also want to change the following to match your own host name # to help weed out internally referred hits in the referrer analysis. host="intuitive.com" if [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then echo "Usage: $(basename $0) logfile" >&2 exit 1 fi if [ ! -r "$1" ] ; then echo "Error: log file $1 not found." >&2 exit 1 fi firstdate="$(head -1 "$1"  awk '{print $4}'  sed 's/\[//')" lastdate="$(tail -1 "$1"  awk '{print $4}'  sed 's/\[//')" echo "Results of analyzing log file $1" echo "" echo " Start date: $(echo $firstdatesed 's/:/ at /')" echo " End date: $(echo $lastdatesed 's/:/ at /')" hits="$(wc -l < "$1"  sed 's/[^[:digit:]]//g')" echo " Hits: $($nicenumber $hits) (total accesses )" pages="$(grep -ivE '(.txt.gif.jpg.png)' "$1"  wc -l  sed 's/[^[:digit:]]//g')" echo " Pageviews: $($nicenumber $pages) (hits minus graphics)" totalbytes="$(awk '{sum+=$10} END {print sum}' "$1")" echo -n " Transferred: $($nicenumber $totalbytes) bytes " if [ $totalbytes -gt $bytes_in_gb ] ; then echo "($($scriptbc $totalbytes / $bytes_in_gb) GB)" elif [ $totalbytes -gt 1024 ] ; then echo "($($scriptbc $totalbytes / 1024) MB)" else echo "" fi # Now let's scrape the log file for some useful data: echo "" echo "The ten most popular pages were:" awk '{print $7}' "$1"  grep -ivE '(.gif.jpg.png)'  \ sed 's/\/$//g'  sort  \ uniq -c  sort -rn  head -10 echo "" echo "The ten most common referrer URLs were:" awk '{print $11}' "$1"  \ grep -vE "(^\"-\"$/www.$host/$host)"  \ sort  uniq -c sort -rn  head -10 echo "" exit 0 
) logfile" >&2 exit 1 fi if [ ! -r "" ] ; then echo "Error: log file not found." >&2 exit 1 fi firstdate="$(head -1 "" awk '{print }' sed 's/\[//')" lastdate="$(tail -1 "" awk '{print }' sed 's/\[//')" echo "Results of analyzing log file " echo "" echo " Start date: $(echo $firstdatesed 's/:/ at /')" echo " End date: $(echo $lastdatesed 's/:/ at /')" hits="$(wc -l < "" sed 's/[^[:digit:]]//g')" echo " Hits: $($nicenumber $hits) (total accesses)" pages="$(grep -ivE '(.txt.gif.jpg.png)' "" wc -l sed 's/[^[:digit:]]//g')" echo " Pageviews: $($nicenumber $pages) (hits minus graphics)" totalbytes="$(awk '{sum+=} END {print sum}' "")" echo -n " Transferred: $($nicenumber $totalbytes) bytes " if [ $totalbytes -gt $bytes_in_gb ] ; then echo "($($scriptbc $totalbytes / $bytes_in_gb) GB)" elif [ $totalbytes -gt 1024 ] ; then echo "($($scriptbc $totalbytes / 1024) MB)" else echo "" fi # Now let's scrape the log file for some useful data: echo "" echo "The ten most popular pages were:" awk '{print }' "" grep -ivE '(.gif.jpg.png)' \ sed 's/\/$//g' sort \ uniq -c sort -rn head -10 echo "" echo "The ten most common referrer URLs were:" awk '{print }' "" \ grep -vE "(^\"-\"$/www.$host/$host)" \ sort uniq -c sort -rn head -10 echo "" exit 0

How It Works

Although this script looks complex, it's not. It's easier to see this if we consider each block as a separate little script. For example, the first few lines extract the firstdate and lastdate by simply grabbing the fourth field of the first and last lines of the file. The number of hits is calculated by counting lines in the file (using wc ), and the number of page views is simply hits minus requests for image files or raw text files (that is, files with .gif , .jpg , .png , or .txt as their extension). Total bytes transferred is calculated by summing up the value of tenth field in each line and then invoking nicenumber to present it attractively.

The most popular pages can be calculated by extracting just the pages requested from the log file; screening out any image files; sorting, using uniq -c to calculate the number of occurrences of each unique line; and finally sorting one more time to ensure that the most commonly occurring lines are presented first. In the code, it looks like this:

 awk '{print }' ""  grep -ivE '(.gif.jpg.png)'  \   sed 's/\/$//g'  sort  \   uniq -c  sort -rn  head -10 

Notice that we do normalize things a little bit: The sed invocation strips out any trailing slashes , to ensure that /subdir/ and /subdir are counted as the same request.

Similar to the section that retrieves the ten most requested pages, the following section pulls out the referrer information:

 awk '{print }' ""  \   grep -vE "(^\"-\"$/www.$host/$host)"  \   sort  uniq -c  sort -rn  head -10 

This extracts field 11 from the log file, screening out both entries that were referred from the current host and entries that are "-" (the value sent when the web browser is blocking referrer data), and then feeds the result to the same sequence of sortuniq -csort -rnhead -10 to get the ten most common referrers.

Running the Script

To run this script, specify the name of an Apache (or other Common Log Format) log file as its only argument.

The Results

The result of running this script on a typical log file is quite informative:

 $  webaccess /web/logs/intuitive/access_log  Results of analyzing log file /web/logs/intuitive/access_log   Start date: 13/Sep/2003 at 18:02:54     End date: 15/Sep/2003 at 16:39:21         Hits: 11,015 (total accesses)    Pageviews: 4,217 (hits minus graphics)  Transferred: 64,091,780 bytes (61.12 GB) The ten most popular pages were:  862 /blog/index.rdf  327 /robots.txt  266 /blog/index.xml  183  115 /custer   96 /blog/styles-site.css   93 /blog   68 /cgi-local/etymologic.cgi   66 /origins   60 /coolweb The ten most common referrer URLs were:   96 "http://booktalk.intuitive.com/"   18 "http://booktalk.intuitive.com/archives/cat_html.shtml"   13 "http://search.msn.com/results.asp?FORM=MSNH&v=1&q=little+big+horn"   12 "http://www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/7420/voc1.html"   10 "http://search.msn.com/spresults.aspx?q=plains&FORM=IE4"    9 "http://www.etymologic.com/index.cgi"    8 "http://www.allwords.com/12wlinks.php"    7 "http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/docs/"    7 "http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&q=cool+web+pages"    6 "http://www.google.com/search?oe=UTF-8&q=html+4+entities" 

Hacking the Script

One challenge of analyzing Apache log files is that there are situations in which two different URLs actually refer to the same page. For example, /custer/ and /custer/index.shtml are the same page, so the calculation of the ten most popular pages really should take that into account. The conversion performed by the sed invocation already ensures that /custer and /custer/ aren't treated separately, but knowing the default filename for a given directory might be a bit trickier.

The usefulness of the analysis of the ten most popular referrers can be enhanced by trimming referrer URLs to just the base domain name (e.g., slashdot.org ). Script #85, Understanding Search Engine Traffic, explores additional information available from the referrer field.




Wicked Cool Shell Scripts. 101 Scripts for Linux, Mac OS X, and Unix Systems
Wicked Cool Shell Scripts
ISBN: 1593270127
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 150
Authors: Dave Taylor

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