A Different Kind of Polymorphism

Templates give us a different kind of reuse mechanism than inheritance. Inheritance means that we'd like to reuse the implementation and signature of a base class and extend it in a derived class. Inheritance is type-centric. The derived class is type compatible with the base class. Type compatibility means that an instance of the derived class can be used where an instance of the base class is required.

On the other hand, templates enable you to reuse the behavior of a class, but to divorce it from the types involved. If the type can fit where it's being used, the compiler doesn't care about the type. For example, all that was required of the type being passed to the Array template was that it had a default constructor so that it could be created in arrays. If the type couldn't live up to that requirement, the compiler would complain.

Because of the way the compiler generates code using template arguments, templates give us a different kind of polymorphism. Instead of polymorphism based on type compatibility, we've got polymorphism based on signature compatibility.[3] If the type has the appropriate function signatures available, the compiler is perfectly happy. This kind of polymorphism has some interesting properties, of which ATL makes heavy use.

[3] This is often called structural typing these days.

Using Behavior Classes

Imagine modifying the Array class so that it does bounds checking only if you so desire:

template <typename T, size_t MAX_ELEMS = 8,   bool bCheckBounds = true> class Array { public:   T& operator[](size_t n) {     if( bCheckBounds && (n < 0 || n >= MAX_ELEMS) )       throw "out of bounds!";     return m_rg[n];   } protected:   T m_rg[MAX_ELEMS]; }; 

This allows a client to turn bounds checking on or off, based on its own requirements:

void main(int argc, char* argv[]) { #ifdef _DEBUG   bool bCheckBounds = true; #else   bool bCheckBounds = false; #endif   Array<long, 256, bCheckBounds> array;   array[256] = 1; } 

The intent here is that we skip the bounds checks in release mode because we have hopefully caught the out-of-bounds errors during development. However, we're still doing a check against bCheckBounds every time through the operator[] member function. We could hope for a good compiler that would optimize away the line because bCheckBounds is known at compile time, or we could remove all doubt and make use of a behavior class.

Behavior Classes Can Group Functions

A behavior class (also known as a trait class or a trait) is a class that contains some static member functions or some type definitions. Behavior classes are never meant to be created. Instead, by putting the functions and type definitions into a class, we've grouped them and can refer to them as a unit.

To solve our bounds-checking problem, imagine two behavior classes, one that checks the bounds and one that does not:

struct DebugBoundsChecker {   static void CheckBounds(size_t n, size_t nMax) {     if( n < 0 || n >= nMax ) throw "out of bounds!";   } }; struct ReleaseBoundsChecker {   static void CheckBounds(size_t n, size_t nMax) {} }; 

Notice that both the behavior classes have the same function with the same signature. The debug version does the bounds checking, and the release version doesn't do anything. And because both implementations are inline functions, the compiler can optimize easily. Given only the knowledge of the signature of the bounds-checking function, I can rewrite the Array class to use the CheckBounds function scoped by a type name passed as a template parameter:

template <typename T, size_t MAX_ELEMS = 8,           typename BoundsChecker = DebugBoundsChecker> class Array { public:   T& operator[](size_t n) {     BoundsChecker::CheckBounds(n, MAX_ELEMS);     return m_rg[n];   } protected:   T m_rg[MAX_ELEMS]; }; 

The client can now take advantage of the bounds checkingor not, as decided at compile time:

void main(int argc, char* argv[]) { #ifdef _DEBUG   typedef DebugBoundsChecker BoundsChecker; #else   typedef ReleaseBoundsChecker BoundsChecker; #endif   Array<long, 256, BoundsChecker> array;   array[256] = 1; } 

In this case, I've used signature compatibility to make my decisions at compile time, resulting in potentially more efficient code. And if I want to add another kind of bounds-checking behavior class in the future, I can, if it has a CheckBounds function that lives up to the signature requirements of the caller.

Simulating Dynamic Binding

One of the benefits of inheritance is dynamic binding. A virtual function in the base class can be overridden in the derived class to extend or replace base class functionality. One especially powerful expression of this idea is the pure virtual member function. A pure virtual member function is a virtual member function that must be overridden in the deriving class. In fact, any class with a pure virtual member function is thought of as an abstract base class (ABC), and no instance of that class can be created. To use the functionality of an ABC, it must be used as a base class, and the deriving class must implement all the pure virtual member functions. This is useful because it allows the base class to define functionality required by the deriving class:

template <typename T> class Array { public:   ...   virtual int Compare(const Array<T>& rhs) =0;   bool operator< (const Array<T>& rhs)   { return this->Compare(rhs) < 0; }   bool operator> (const Array<T>& rhs)   { return this->Compare(rhs) > 0; }   bool operator== (const Array<T>& rhs)   { return this->Compare(rhs) == 0; }   T m_rg[1024]; }; 

By defining the Compare function as pure virtual, the Array class designer has decreed that Array can be used only as a base class and that the deriving class must provide some way of comparing two arrays of the same type so that the comparison operators can be implemented. For example, a String class must implement the Compare function:

class String : public Array<char> { public:   // the compiler requires this method:   int Compare(const Array<char>& rhs)   { return strcmp(m_rg, rhs.m_rg); } }; 

The compiler uses the implementation of the pure virtual member function provided in the derived class to fill in the virtual function table entry for that member function (as it does with all virtual member function pointers). Using function pointers to invoke member functions is how C++ provides dynamic bindingthat is, binding to the specific implementation at runtime based on the type of the variable.

However, we're paying the price of dynamic binding for our String class. The price of dynamic binding is a virtual function table, shared among all instances, an extra 4-bye virtual function pointer per object, and at least two extra pointer indirections to invoke the appropriate implementation. This seems a high price to pay, given perfect knowledge at compile time. We know how to compare two String objects. Why not make the compiler do the work and save us the overhead of dynamic binding? We can do that by using simulated dynamic binding.

Simulated dynamic binding enables us to provide the name of the deriving class to the base class. The base class casts itself to the deriving class to call the required function. Revising the Array to use simulated dynamic binding looks like this:

template <typename T, typename Deriving> class Array { public:   ...   bool operator< (const Array<T, Deriving>& rhs)   { return static_cast<Deriving*>(this)->Compare(rhs) < 0; }   bool operator> (const Array<T, Deriving>& rhs)   { return static_cast<Deriving*>(this)->Compare(rhs) > 0; }   bool operator== (const Array<T, Deriving>& rhs)   { return static_cast<Deriving*>(this)->Compare(rhs) == 0; }   T m_rg[1024]; }; 

Notice that the Array template takes an additional parameter: the name of the deriving class. It uses that class name to perform a static cast on itself. Because the compiler expands the code of the base class while instantiating the deriving class, the static cast performs a perfectly safe downcast (normally a contradiction in terms). The compiler uses the member functions of the deriving cast to resolve the address of the required function at compile time, saving us the cost of dynamic binding. The deriving class must implement the appropriate member function and pass its own name as a parameter to the base class template:

class String : public Array<char, String> { public:   // the compiler requires this method:   int Compare(const Array<char, String>& rhs)   { return strcmp(m_rg, rhs.m_rg); } }; 

This technique gives us the look and feel of dynamic binding without using virtual member functions. The base class can require functionality of the deriving class. The base class cannot be instantiated by itself. The major difference is that because no virtual functions are required, we don't have the overhead of dynamic binding.

The Discovery of Simulated Dynamic Binding

It's my understanding that the ATL team members discovered simulated dynamic binding accidentally. When they did, they went immediately to the compiler team members, who claimed that the C++ Standard does not mandate or prohibit such behavior, but they promised to keep it working for ATL. Does that mean you should use simulated dynamic binding when you're writing your most portable code? Probably not. Should you still understand it because ATL is rife with it? Absolutely. Should you sneak it into your own bag of tricks? It's in mine.

ATL Internals. Working with ATL 8
ATL Internals: Working with ATL 8 (2nd Edition)
ISBN: 0321159624
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 172

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