Accessibility Guidelines and Standards, by Chapter

Team-Fly    

Maximum Accessibility: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone
By John M. Slatin,, Sharron Rush
Table of Contents
Preface


This table provides a quick reference to WCAG 1.0 and Section 508, each of which is generally referenced throughout the book. References to specific guidelines, checkpoints, and standards appear in the indicated chapters. Guidelines and standards text used with permission.

 

Priority

Chapter Reference

Overview of Guidelines and Standards

 

1, 3, 4, 6

WCAG 1.0

  

Guideline 1. Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content.

 

7, 9

1.1. Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element.

P1

2, 7, 9, 12, 13

1.2. Provide redundant text links for each active region of a server-side image map.

P1

7

1.3. Until user agents can automatically read aloud the text equivalent of a visual track, provide an auditory description of the important information of the visual track of a multimedia presentation.

P1

7, 9, 13

1.4. For any time-based multimedia presentation synchronize equivalent alternatives with the presentation.

P1

7, 9, 13

1.5. Until user agents render text equivalents for client-side image map links, provide redundant text links for each active region of a client-side image map.

P3

7

Guideline 2. Don't rely on color alone.

 

15

2.1. Ensure that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.

 

15

2.2. Ensure that foreground and background color combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black and white screen. [Priority 2 for images, Priority 3 for text]

P2 images P3 text

15

Guideline 3. Use markup and style sheets and do so properly.

 

5, 15

3.1. When an appropriate markup language exists, use markup rather than images to convey information.

P2

 

3.2. Create documents that validate to published formal grammars.

P2

 

3.3. Use style sheets to control layout and presentation.

P2

11, 15

3.4. Use relative rather than absolute units in markup language attribute values and style sheet property values.

P2

15

3.5. Use header elements to convey document structure and use them according to specification.

P2

8, 15

3.6. Mark up lists and list items properly.

P2

8

3.7. Mark up quotations. Do not use quotation markup for formatting effects such as indentation.

P2

 

Guideline 4. Clarify natural language usage.

4.1. Clearly identify changes in the natural language of a document's text and any text equivalents (e.g., captions).

P1

 

4.2. Specify the expansion of each abbreviation or acronym in a document where it first occurs.

P3

 

4.3. Identify the primary natural language of a document.

P3

11

Guideline 5. Create tables that transform gracefully.

  

5.1. For data tables, identify row and column headers.

P1

5, 11, 12

5.2. For data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers, use markup to associate data cells and header cells.

P2

5, 11

5.3. Do not use tables for layout unless the table makes sense when linearized. Otherwise, if the table does not make sense, provide an alternative equivalent (which may be a linearized version).

P2

11

5.4. If a table is used for layout, do not use any structural markup for the purpose of visual formatting.

P2

11

5.5. Provide summaries for tables.

P3

5, 11

5.6. Provide abbreviations for header labels.

P3

5, 11

Guideline 6. Ensure that pages featuring new technologies transform gracefully.

P3

12, 14

6.1. Organize documents so they may be read without style sheets.

P1

15

6.2. Ensure that equivalents for dynamic content are updated when the dynamic content changes.

P3

8

6.3. Ensure that pages are usable when scripts, applets, or other programmatic objects are turned off or not supported. If this is not possible, provide equivalent information on an alternative accessible page.

P1

14

6.4. For scripts and applets, ensure that event handlers are input device-independent.

P2

14

6.5. Ensure that dynamic content is accessible or provide an alternative presentation or page.

P2

 

Guideline 7. Ensure user control of time-sensitive content changes.

  

7.1. Until user agents allow users to control flickering, avoid causing the screen to flicker.

P1

13

7.2. Until user agents allow users to control blinking, avoid causing content to blink.

P2

 

7.3. Until user agents allow users to freeze moving content, avoid movement in pages.

P2

 

7.4. Until user agents provide the ability to stop the refresh, do not create periodically auto-refreshing pages.

P2

7

7.5. Until user agents provide the ability to stop auto-redirect, do not use markup to redirect pages automatically. Instead, configure the server to perform redirects.

P2

 

Guideline 8. Ensure direct accessibility of embedded user interfaces.

  

8.1. Make programmatic elements such as scripts and applets directly accessible or compatible with assistive technologies.

P1/P2

13, 14

Guideline 9. Design for device-independence.

 

7

9.1. Provide client-side image maps instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

P1

2, 7, 9

9.2. Ensure that any element that has its own interface can be operated in a device-independent manner.

P2

7

9.3. For scripts, specify logical event handlers rather than device-dependent event handlers.

P2

10, 13, 14

9.4. Create a logical tab order through links, form controls, and objects.

P3

14

9.5. Provide keyboard shortcuts to important links (including those in client-side image maps), form controls, and groups of form controls.

P3

 

Guideline 10. Use interim solutions.

  

10.1. Until user agents allow users to turn off spawned windows, do not cause pop-ups or other windows to appear and do not change the current window without informing the user.

P2

7

10.2. Until user agents support explicit associations between labels and form controls, for all form controls with implicitly associated labels, ensure that the label is properly positioned.

P2

7, 10

10.3. Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render side-by-side text correctly, provide a linear text alternative (on the current page or some other) for all tables that lay out text in parallel, word-wrapped columns.

P3

7

10.4. Until user agents handle empty controls correctly, include default, place-holding characters in edit boxes and text areas.

P3

 

10.5. Until user agents (including assistive technologies) render adjacent links distinctly, include non-link, printable characters (surrounded by spaces) between adjacent links.

  

Guideline 11. Use W3C technologies and guidelines.

  

11.1. Use W3C technologies when they are available and appropriate for a task and use the latest versions when supported.

P2

 

11.2. Avoid deprecated features of W3C technologies.

P2

5, 11

11.3. Provide information so that users may receive documents according to their preferences (e.g., language, content type, etc.).

P3

 

11.4. If, after best efforts, you cannot create an accessible page, provide a link to an alternative page that uses W3C technologies, is accessible, has equivalent information (or functionality), and is updated as often as the inaccessible (original) page.

P1

7, 8

Guideline 12. Provide context and orientation information.

 

5

12.1. Title each frame to facilitate frame identification and navigation.

P1

5, 7, 14

12.2. Describe the purpose of frames and how frames relate to each other if it is not obvious by frame titles alone.

P2

7

12.3. Divide large blocks of information into more manageable groups where natural and appropriate.

P2

10

12.4. Associate labels explicitly with their controls.

P2

7, 10

Guideline 13. Provide clear navigation mechanisms.

 

5, 11

13.1. Clearly identify the target of each link.

P2

 

13.2. Provide metadata to add semantic information to pages and sites.

P2

 

13.3. Provide information about the general layout of a site (e.g., a site map or table of contents).

P2

 

13.4. Use navigation mechanisms in a consistent manner.

P2

5, 7, 11

13.5. Provide navigation bars to highlight and give access to the navigation mechanism.

P3

 

13.6. Group related links, identify the group (for user agents), and, until user agents do so, provide a way to bypass the group.

P3

7, 15

13.7. If search functions are provided, enable different types of searches for different skill levels and preferences.

P3

 

13.8. Place distinguishing information at the beginning of headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.

P3

8

13.9. Provide information about document collections (i.e., documents comprising multiple pages).

P3

 

13.10. Provide a means to skip over multi-line ASCII art.

P3

 

Guideline 14. Ensure that documents are clear and simple.

  

14.1. Use the clearest and simplest language appropriate for a site's content.

P1

 

14.2. Supplement text with graphic or auditory presentations where they will facilitate comprehension of the page.

P3

9, 13

14.3. Create a style of presentation that is consistent across pages.

P3

 

Section 508 Amendments

  

Subpart B Technical Standards §1194.22 Web-based intranet and Internet information and applications.

  

(a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content).

 

2, 7, 9

(b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

 

9, 13

(c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example, from context or markup.

 

15

(d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.

 

15

(e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.

 

7

(f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

 

2, 7, 9

(g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.

 

5, 11, 12

(h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.

 

5, 11

(i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.

 

5, 7, 14

(j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

 

13

(k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.

 

8

(l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.

 

14

(m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with §1194.21 (a) through (l).

 

13, 14

(n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed online, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.

 

7, 10

(o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.

 

7, 15

(p) When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.

 

10


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    Maximum Accessibility(c) Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone
    Maximum Accessibility: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone: Making Your Web Site More Usable for Everyone
    ISBN: 0201774224
    EAN: 2147483647
    Year: 2002
    Pages: 128

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