Studies conducted by the National Research Council advise the government on technology-related issues and are an excellent resource for technology policy and government initiatives. All are available online. Some concern social issues in networked communities and cryptography policy (NRC 1994; 1996), intellectual property in the digital age (NRC 2000a), education (NRC 1999a; 2002), workforce issues (NRC 2001), and government support of research (NRC 1999b). The discussion of the types of research and technology transfer is based largely on Pasteur's Quadrant (Stokes 1997), a book that has had considerable impact on the conduct of research in industrial laboratories. Shapiro and Varian (1999b) have an excellent discussion of intellectual property portfolios and rights management, especially as they relate to strategy and to economics.