Aghion, Philippe, and Jean Tirole. 1997. Formal and Real Authority in Organizations. Journal of Political Economy 105: 1–27.
Ahmadjian, Christina, and James Lincoln. 1997. Changing Firm Boundaries in Japanese Auto Parts Supply Networks. Draft, Columbia Business School.
Andersen, Erin. 1985. The Salesperson as Outside Agent or Employee: A Transaction Cost Analysis. Marketing Science 4: 234–254.
Andersen, Erin, and David Schmittlein. 1984. Integration of the Sales Force:An Empirical Examination. Rand Journal of Economics 15: 385–395.
Arrow, Kenneth. 1975. Vertical Integration and Communication. Bell Journal of Economics 6: 173–182.
Asanuma, Banri. 1989. Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships in Japan and the Concept of RelationSpecific Skill. The Journal of the Japanese and International Economies 3: 1–30.
Asanuma, Banri. 1992. Japanese Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships in International Perspective. In Paul Sheard, ed., International Adjustment and the Japanese Economy. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Baker, George, Robert Gibbons, and Kevin J. Murphy. 1997. Relational Contracts and the Theory of the Firm. Draft, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Buttrick, John. 1952. The Inside Contracting System. Journal of Economic History 12: 205–221.
De Meza, David, and Ben Lockwood. 1998. Does Asset Ownership Always Motivate Managers? Outside Options and the Property Rights Theory of the Firm. Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (2): 361–386.
Ghemawat, Pankaj. 1995. Competitive Advantage and Internal Organization: Nucor Revisited. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 3: 685–717.
Grossman, Sanford, and Oliver Hart. 1986. The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Lateral and Vertical Integration. Journal of Political Economy 94: 691–719.
Grout, Paul. 1984. Investment and Wages in the Absence of Binding Contracts: A Nash Bargaining Approach. Econometrica 51: 449–460.
Halonen, Maija. 1994. Reputation and Allocation of Ownership. STICERD Theoretical Economics Discussion Paper, London School of Economics.
Hart, Oliver. 1995. Firms, Contracts, and Financial Structure. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hart, Oliver, and John Moore. 1990. Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm. Journal of Political Economy 98: 1119–1158.
Helper, Susan. 1991. Strategy and Irreversibility in Supplier Relations: The Case of the U.S. Automobile Industry. Business History Review 65: 781–824.
Holmstr m, Bengt. 1996. The Firm as a Subeconomy. Draft, Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Holmstr m, Bengt, and Paul Milgrom. 1991. Multitask Principal-Agent Analyses: Incentive Contracts, Asset Ownership, and Job Design. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 7: 24–51.
Holmstr m, Bengt, and Paul Milgrom. 1994. The Firm as an Incentive System. American Economic Review 84: 972–991.
Holmstr m, Bengt, and Jean Tirole. 1991. Transfer Pricing and Organizational Form. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 7 (2): 201–228.
Klein, Benjamin, Robert Crawford, and Armen Alchian. 1978. Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process. Journal of Law and Economics 21: 297–326.
LaFontaine, Francine, and Margaret Slade. 1997. Retail Contracting: Theory and Practice. Journal of Industrial Economics 45: 1–25.
Lutz, Nancy. 1995. Ownership Rights and Incentives in Franchising. Journal of Corporate Finance 2: 103–131.
Maness, Robert. 1996. Incomplete Contracts and the Choice between Vertical Integration and Franchising. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 32: 101–115.
Meyer, Margaret, Paul Milgrom, and John Roberts. 1992. Organizational Prospects, Influence Costs and Ownership Changes. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy 1 (1): 9–35.
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts. 1988. An Economic Approach to Influence Activities and Organizational Responses. American Journal of Sociology 94 (supplement): S154–S179.
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts. 1990. Bargaining Costs, Influence Costs and the Organization of Economic Activity. In J. Alt and K. Shepsle, eds., Perspectives on Positive Political Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 57–89.
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts. 1992. Economics, Organization and Management. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts. 1993. Johnson Controls, Inc. Automotive Systems Group: The Georgetown Kentucky Plant. Stanford Graduate School of Business, Case S-BE-9.
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts. 1994. Comparing Equilibria. American Economic Review 84: 441–459.
Monteverde, Kirk, and David Teece. 1982. Supplier Switching Costs and Vertical Integration in the Automobile Industry. Bell Journal of Economics 13: 206–213.
Powell, Walter. 1996. Inter-Organizational Collaboration in the Biotechnology Industry. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 152 (1): 197–215.
Rajan, Raghuram, and Luigi Zingales. 1998. Power in a Theory of the Firm. Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (2): 387–432.
Scharfstein, David. 1998. The Dark Side of Internal Capital Markets II: Evidence from Diversified Conglomerates. NBER Working Paper No. 6352.
Segal, Ilya, and Michael Whinston. 1993. Exclusive Dealing and Protection of Investments. Draft, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley.
Shepard, Andrea. 1993. Contractual Form, Retail Price, and Asset Characteristics. Rand Journal of Economics 24: 58–77.
Shin, Hyun-Han, and Rene M. Stulz. 1998. Are Internal Capital Markets Efficient? Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (2): 531–552.
Slade, Margaret. 1996. Multitask Agency and Contract Choice: An Empirical Assessment. International Economic Review 37: 465–486.
Stuckey, John. 1983. Vertical Integration and Joint Ventures in the Aluminum Industry. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Taylor, Curtis, and Steven Wiggins. 1997. Competition or Compensation: Supplier Incentives Under the American and Japanese Subcontracting Systems. American Economic Review 87: 4, 598–618.
Teece, David, Richard Rumelt, Giovanni Dosi, and Sidney Winter. 1994. Understanding Corporate Coherence, Theory and Evidence. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 23: 1–30.
Walton, Mary. 1997. Car: A Drama of the American Workplace. New York: W.W. Norton.
Whinston, Michael. 1997. On the Transaction Cost Determinants of Vertical Integration. Draft, Department of Economics, Northwestern University.
Williamson, Oliver. 1975. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications. New York: Free Press.
Williamson, Oliver. 1979. Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations. Journal of Law and Economics 22: 233–271.
Williamson, Oliver. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.