Once Active Directory is installed, you need to configure your sites. This lesson walks you through the steps for configuring site settings, including creating a site, associating a subnet with a site, connecting a site using site links, and selecting a site license server.
After this lesson, you will be able to
Estimated lesson time: 20 minutes
To configure site settings you must complete the following tasks:
Sites define sets of domain controllers that are well connected in terms of speed and cost. Domain controllers in the same site replicate on the basis of notification. That is, when a domain controller has changes, it notifies its replication partners. The notified partner then requests the changes and replication takes place. Because there is no concern about replication speed or cost, replication within sites occurs as needed rather than as scheduled. Replication between sites occurs according to a schedule; you can use the schedule to determine the most beneficial time for replication to occur on the basis of network traffic and cost. A site is the equivalent of a set of one or more IP subnets.
When you install Active Directory on the first domain controller in the site, an object named Default-First-Site-Name is created in the Sites container. It is necessary to install the first domain controller into this site. Subsequent domain controllers are either installed into the site of the source domain controller (assuming the IP address maps to the site) or into existing site. When your first domain controller has been installed, you can rename Default-First-Site-Name to the name you want to use for the site.
When you install Active Directory on subsequent servers, if alternate sites have been defined in Active Directory and the IP address of the installation computer matches an existing subnet in a defined site, the domain controller is added to that site. Otherwise, it is added to the site of the source domain controller.
Follow these steps to create a new site:
Figure 17.4 New Object-Site dialog box
Follow these steps to rename a site:
Computers on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networks are assigned to sites based on their location in a subnet or a set of subnets. Subnets group computers in a way that identifies their feasible physical proximity on the network. Subnet information is used to find a domain controller in the same site as the computer that is authenticated during logon, and it is used during Active Directory replication to determine the best routes between domain controllers.
Follow these steps to create a subnet:
Figure 17.5 New Object-Subnet dialog box
Follow these steps to associate an existing subnet with a site:
Figure 17.6 Properties dialog box for a subnet
For replication to occur between two sites, a link must be established between the sites. Site links are not generated automatically and must be created in Active Directory Sites And Services. Unless a site link is in place, connections cannot be made between computers in the two sites and replication between the sites cannot take place. Each site link contains the schedule that determines when replication can occur between the sites that it connects. The Active Directory Sites And Services console guarantees that every site is placed in at least one site link. A site link can contain more than two sites, in which case all the sites are equally well connected.
When you install Active Directory on the first domain controller in the site, the Active Directory Installation Wizard automatically creates an object named DEFAULTIPSITELINK in the IP container. It is necessary to create this site link for the first default site, also created by the Active Directory Installation Wizard. Subsequent site links are created separately. When your first domain controller has been installed, you can change the DEFAULTIPSITELINK to the name you want to use for the site link.
Directory information can be exchanged over site links using different network protocols such as IP or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP):
If you choose to use SMTP over site links, you must install and configure a certification authority (CA). The CA signs SMTP messages that are exchanged between domain controllers, ensuring the authenticity of directory updates.
Follow these steps to create a site link:
If you create a site link that uses SMTP, you must have an Enterprise CA available and SMTP must be installed on all domain controllers that will use the site link.
Figure 17.7 New Object-Site Link dialog box
Follow these steps to add a site to an existing site link:
An administrator can ensure an organization's legal compliance with Microsoft BackOffice software license agreements by monitoring license purchases, deletions, and usage. This licensing information is collected on a server by the License Logging service in Windows 2000 Server.
The License Logging service on each server in a site replicates this licensing information to a centralized database on a server called the site license server for the site. A site administrator or administrator for the site license server can then use the Licensing utility in Administrative Tools to view the licensing history for the entire site stored on the site license server.
The default site license server is the first domain controller created for the site, but the site license server does not have to be a domain controller. For optimal performance, however, the site license server and domain controller should be in the same site. In a large organization with multiple sites, licensing information for each site is collected separately by the site license server in each site.
Follow these steps to select a site license server:
Follow these steps to view licensing for a site:
In this practice you configure a site. To configure a site you must first create a site. You must then associate a subnet with the site and connect the site using site links. Finally, you must select a site license server.
In this exercise, you will rename the default site name to Redmond. This will give you a site to link to in a later exercise.
The Active Directory Sites And Services console appears.
What objects appear in the details pane?
The Default-First-Site-Name site has been renamed Redmond.
In this exercise, you will create a new site. This site will be configured in the following exercises.
The New Object-Site dialog box appears.
The Active Directory message box appears reminding you that to finish configuring the site Chicago you must:
In this exercise, you create a subnet for the new Chicago site.
The New Object-Subnet dialog box appears.
The 10.0.0.0/8 subnet is created and the Chicago site is associated to the subnet.
In this exercise, you associate an existing subnet with the existing Redmond site.
The Properties dialog box for the 10.0.0.0/8 subnet appears with the Subnet tab chosen.
In this exercise, you link the Redmond and Chicago sites.
What object appears in the details pane?
The New Object-Site Link dialog box appears.
Before you can use a link, you need to select the appropriate site license server. In this exercise, you select the license server for the Chicago site.
The Licensing Site Settings Properties dialog box appears.
The Select Computer dialog box appears.
You return to the Licensing Site Settings Properties dialog box. The computer is SERVER01 and the domain is microsoft.com (or the computer and domain you selected) for the site license server in the Licensing Computer box.
The MICROSOFT.COM-Licensing utility appears. You can view licensing information using the Products View tab.
In this lesson you learned how to configure sites. After you create a site, you must add subnets for the site to the subnets container, ensure that the site is linked to other sites with site links as appropriate, and select the licensing for the site. Subnets group computers in a way that identifies their physical proximity on the network. Site links contain the cost and schedule for replication traffic and allow replication to occur between two sites.
You also learned how the License Logging service on each server in a site replicates this licensing information to a centralized database on a server called the site license server for the site. A site administrator or administrator for the site license server can then use the Licensing utility in Administrative Tools to view the licensing history for the entire site stored on the site license server.
In the practice portion of this lesson you created a site, associated a subnet with the site, connected a site using site links, and selected a site license server.