Aural Style Sheet Properties


Aural style sheets are provided for the blind and visually impaired communities. Page contents are read to the user. The aural style sheet "canvas" uses dimensional space to render sounds in specified sequences as page elements are displayed and selected.

azimuth

Usage

Enables you to position a sound. Designed for spatial audio, which requires binaural headphones or five-speaker home theater systems.

CSS2 Values

<angle> | [[left-side | far-left | left | center-left | center | center-right | right | far-right | right-side] || behind ]| leftwards | rightwards | inherit

Initial

center

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


cue

Usage

Shorthand property for cue-before and cue-after. Plays a sound before or after an element is rendered.

CSS2 Values

cue-before | cue-after | inherit

Initial

Not defined (shorthand property).

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

No.


cue-after, cue-before

Usage

Plays a sound after (cue-after) or before (cue-before) an element is rendered.

CSS2 Values

<uri> | none | inherit Initial none

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

No.


elevation

Usage

Enables you to position the angle of a sound. For use with spatial audio (binaural headphones or five-speaker home theater setups required).

CSS2 Values

<angle> | below | level | above | higher | lower | inherit

Initial

level

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


pause

Usage

A shorthand property for setting pause-before and pause-after in the same location in the style sheet.

CSS2 Values

<time> | <percentage> | inherit Initial Depends on browser.

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

No.


pause-after, pause-before

Usage

Specifies a pause to be observed before or after speaking an element's content.

CSS2 Values

<time> | <percentage> | inherit

Initial

Depends on browser.

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

No.


pitch

Usage

Specifies the average pitch (frequency) of the speaking voice.

CSS2 Values

<frequency> | x-low | low | medium | high | x-high | inherit

Initial

medium

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.

Notes

Average pitch for the standard male voice is around 120Hz; for the female voice, it is around 210Hz.


pitch-range

Usage

Specifies variation in average pitch. Used to vary inflection and add animation to the voice.

CSS2 Values

<number> | inherit

Initial

50

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


play-during

Usage

Specifies a sound to be played as a background while an element's content is spoken.

CSS2 Values

<uri> | mix? | repeat? | auto | none | inherit

Initial

auto

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

No.


richness

Usage

Specifies the richness, or brightness, of the speaking voice.

CSS2 Values

<number> | inherit

Initial

50

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


speak

Usage

Specifies whether text will be rendered aurally, and in what manner.

CSS2 Values

normal | none | spell-out | inherit

Initial

normal

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


speak-header

Usage

Specifies whether table headers are spoken before every cell, or only before a cell when it is associated with a different header than a previous cell.

CSS2 Values

once | always | inherit

Initial

once

Applies to

Elements that have header information.

Inherited

Yes.


speak-numeral

Usage

Speaks numbers as individual digits (100 is spoken as "one zero zero") or as a continuous full number (100 is spoken as "one hundred").

CSS2 Values

digits | continuous | inherit

Initial

continuous

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


speak-punctuation

Usage

Speaks punctuation literally (period, comma, and so on) or naturally as various pauses.

CSS2 Values

code | none | inherit Initial none

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


speech-rate

Usage

Specifies the speaking rate of the voice.

CSS2 Values

<number> | x-slow | slow | medium | fast | x-fast | faster | slower | inherit

Initial

medium

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


stress

Usage

Specifies the height of local peaks in the intonation of a voice. Controls the amount of inflection within stress markers.

CSS2 Values

<number> | inherit

Initial

50

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.

Notes

A companion to the pitch-range property.


voice-family

Usage

Specifies a comma-separated list of voice family names.

CSS2 Values

<specific-voice> | <generic-voice> | inherit

Initial

Depends on browser.

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.


volume

Usage

Specifies the median volume of a waveform. Ranges from 0 (minimum audible volume level) to 100 (maximum comfortable level).

CSS2 Values

<number> | <percentage> | silent | x-soft | soft | medium | loud | x-loud | inherit

Initial

medium

Applies to

All elements.

Inherited

Yes.

Notes

silent renders no sound at all. x-soft = 0, soft = 25, medium = 50, loud = 75, and x-loud = 100.





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Sams Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML and CSS in One Hour a Day (5th Edition)
ISBN: 0672328860
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2007
Pages: 305

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