Appendix A. (X)HTML Reference


A. (X)HTML Reference

On the following pages, you'll find a list of the (X)HTML elements and attributes described in this book (including the chapters that have been moved to the Web sitesee page 25). Each element has a short description, an annotated list of its associated attributes, and the page number in the book where you'll find more information. If a particular attribute has no page reference, it means that it is discussed on the same page as the element with which it is listed.

Elements and attributes that the W3C would like to discourage you from using are marked with a D (for deprecated) or an F (for frameset). Deprecated items can only be used if you've specified the DOCTYPE for transitional or frameset (X)HTML. Frameset items can only be used in frameset (X)HTML. Thus, if your intention is to write strict (X)HTML, you should use only those elements and attributes with nothing in the Vers. column. For more information on choosing and then specifying an appropriate DOCTYPE, consult Versions, flavors, and DOCTYPE on page 40 and Starting Your Web Page on page 56.

The only non-standard element that I have included in this listing is embed. Although it is not and has never been part of the official (X)HTML specifications, its widespread use continues to warrant its inclusion, for reference, if nothing else.

(X)HTML Elements and Attributes

Tag/Attribute(S)

Description

Vers.

--MOST TAGS--

The following attributes may be used with most (X)HTML tags

 

class

For identifying a set of tags in order to apply styles to them (pp. 63, 64, 65)

 

event

For triggering a script (p. 314). Also see Intrinsic Events on page 418

 

id

For identifying particular tags so that they can be linked to, styled, or scripted with JavaScript (pp. 63, 64, 65, 106)

 

lang

For specifying the language an element is written in (p. 338)

 

style

For adding local style sheet information (p. 134)

 

title

For labeling elements with tool tips (p. 68)

 

!--

For inserting invisible comments (p. 67)

 

!DOCTYPE

Theoretically required. For indicating the version of (X)HTML used (p. 56)

 

a

For creating links and anchors (p. 104)

 

accesskey

For adding a keyboard shortcut to a link (p. 112)

 

event

For triggering a script (p. 314)

 

href

For specifying the URL of a page or the name of an anchor that a link goes to

 

name

For marking a specific area of a page that a link might jump to (p. 106)

 

tabindex

For defining the order in which the Tab key takes the visitor through links and form elements (p. 113)

 

target

For specifying the window or frame where a link should open (pp. 108, 109)

D

abbr

For explaining the meaning of abbreviations (p. 78)

 

acronym

For explaining the meaning of acronyms (p. 78)

 

address

For formatting the email address of the Web page designer (p. 70)

 

applet

For inserting applets (p. 308)

D

code

For specifying the URL of the applet's code

D

width, height

For specifying the width and height of an applet

D

area

For specifying the coordinates of image maps (p. 117)

 

accesskey

For adding a keyboard shortcut to a particular region of the map

 

alt

For giving information about an area

 

coords

For giving the coordinates of an area in an image map

 

HRef

For specifying the destination URL of a link in an area in an image map

 

nohref

For making a click in an image map have no effect

 

shape

For specifying the shape of an area in an image map

 

target

For specifying the window or frame where a link should open

D

b

For displaying text in boldface (p. 70)

 

base

  

HRef

For specifying the URL to be used to generate relative URLs (p. 109)

 

target

For specifying the default target for the links on the page (p. 109)

D

basefont

For specifying default font values for a page (see Web site)

D

color

For specifying the default color for text

D

face

For specifying the default font for text

D

size

For specifying the default size for text

D

big

For making text bigger than the surrounding text (p. 71)

 

blockquote

For setting off a block of text on a page (p. 74)

 

cite

For giving the URL of the source of the quote

 

body

For enclosing the main content area of a page (p. 58)

 

alink, link, vlink

For specifying the color of active links, new links, and visited links (see Web site)

D

background

For specifying a background image (see Web site) D

 

bgcolor

For specifying the background color (see Web site)

D

text

For specifying the color of text (see Web site)

D

br

For creating a line break (p. 66)

 

clear

For stopping text wrap (p. 98)

D

button

For creating buttons (pp. 273, 275, 316)

 

accesskey

For adding a keyboard shortcut to a button

 

disabled

For graying out a button until some other event occurs

 

event

For associating the button with a script

 

name

For identifying the data sent with a button, or for identifying the button itself (perhaps for a JavaScript function)

 

type

For using the button as a form element

 

value

For specifying the data that should be submitted when the button is clicked

 

caption

For creating a caption for a table (p. 229)

 

align

For positioning the caption above or below the table

D

center

For centering text, images, or other elements (p. 79)

D

cite

For marking text as a citation (p. 70)

 

code

For marking text as computer code (p. 72)

 

col

For joining columns in a table into a non-structural group (p. 246)

 

align, valign

For specifying the alignment of columns in a column group

 

span

For specifying the number of columns in a column group

 

width

For specifying a column's width

 

colgroup

For joining columns in a table into a structural column group (p. 246)

 

align, valign

For specifying the alignment of columns in a column group

 

span

For specifying the number of columns in a column group

 

width

For specifying the default width for the enclosed col elements

 

dd

For marking a definition in a list (p. 223)

 

del

To mark deleted text by striking it out (p. 77)

 

div

For dividing a page into block-level sections (pp. 64, 170)

 

align

For aligning a given division to the left, right, or center

D

class

For identifying a group of divisions (so that you can apply styles to them all in one fell swoop)

 

id

For identifying particular divisions (so they can be linked, styled, or scripted)

 

dl

For creating a definition list (p. 223)

 

dt

For marking a term to be defined in a list (p. 223)

 

em

For emphasizing text, usually with italics (p. 70)

 

embed

For adding multimedia (pp. 286, 302)

*

autostart

For making a multimedia event begin automatically

*

controls

For displaying the play, pause, rewind buttons

*

loop

For determining if the multimedia event should play more than once

*

src

For specifying the URL of a multimedia file

*

width, height

For specifying the size of the embedded multimedia player

*

fieldset

For grouping a set of form elements together (p. 260)

 

font

For changing the size, face, and color of the text (see Web site)

D

color

For changing text color

D

face

For changing text font

D

size

For changing text size

D

form

For creating fill-in forms (p. 254)

 

action

For giving the URL of the script that will process the form data

 

enctype

For making sure files are sent to the server in the proper format (pp. 259, 270)

 

method

For specifying how data should be sent to the server

 

frame

For creating frames (see Web site)

F

frameborder

For displaying or hiding frame borders (see Web site)

F

longdesc

For linking to a document with more information (see Web site)

F

name

For naming a frame so it can be used as a target (see Web site)

F

noresize

For keeping users from resizing a frame (see Web site)

F

marginwidth, marginheight

For specifying a frame's left and right, and top and bottom margins (see Web site)

F

scrolling

For displaying or hiding a frame's scrollbars (see Web site)

F

src

For specifying the initial URL to be displayed in frame (see Web site)

F

target

For specifying which frame a link should be opened in (see Web site)

F

title

For indicating a frame's purpose (see Web site)

F

frameset

For defining a frameset (see Web site)

F

cols

For determining the number and size of frames (see Web site)

F

frameborder

For displaying or hiding frame borders (see Web site)

F

rows

For determining the number and size of frames (see Web site)

F

h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6

For creating headers (p. 61)

 

align

For aligning headers

D

head

For creating the head section, which contains information about the page, including the title, author, keywords, style sheets, and scripts (p. 58)

 

HR

For creating horizontal rules (p. 101)

 

align

For aligning horizontal rules

D

noshade

For displaying horizontal rules without shading

D

size

For specifying the height of a horizontal rule

D

width

For specifying the width of a horizontal rule

D

html

For identifying a text document as an (X)HTML document (p. 56)

 

xmlns

For specifying the xhtml namespace

 

i

For displaying text in italics (p. 70)

 

iframe

For creating floating frames (see Web site)

D

align

For aligning floating frames

D

frameborder

For displaying or hiding frame borders (see Web site)

D

height

For specifying the height of a floating frame

D

name

For specifying the name of the floating frame, to be used as a target

D

width, height

For specifying the size of a floating frame

D

scrolling

For displaying or hiding scrollbars (see Web site)

D

src

For specifying the URL of the initial page

D

img

For inserting images on a page (p. 90)

 

align

For aligning images (p. 100) and for wrapping text around images (pp. 96, 97)

D

alt

For offering alternate text that is displayed if the image is not (p. 91)

 

border

For specifying the thickness of the border, if any (pp. 90, 114)

D

hspace, vspace

For specifying the amount of space above and below, and to the sides of an image (p. 99)

D

src

For specifying the URL of an image (p. 90)

 

usemap

For specifying the image map that should be used with the referenced image (pp. 117, 118)

 

width, height

For specifying the size of an image so that the page is loaded more quickly, or for scaling (pp. 92, 93, 94)

 

input

For creating form elements (pp. 262, 263, 265, 268, 270, 271, 272, 274)

 

accesskey

For adding a keyboard shortcut to a form element (p. 278)

 

align

For aligning form elements

D

checked

For marking a radio button or check box by default (pp. 265, 268)

 

disabled

For graying out form elements until some other event occurs (p. 279)

 

event

For triggering a script with an event like onfocus, onblur, etc.

 

maxlength

For specifying the maximum number of characters that can be entered in a form element (pp. 262, 263)

 

name

For identifying data collected by an element

 

size

For specifying the length of a text or password box (pp. 262, 263)

 

src

For specifying the URL of an active image (p. 276)

 

readonly

For keeping visitors from changing certain form elements (p. 280)

 

tabindex

For specifying the order in which the Tab key should take a visitor through the links and form elements (p. 277)

 

type

For specifying if a form element is a text box, password box, radio button, checkbox, hidden field, submit button, reset button or active image

 

value

For specifying the default data in a form element

 

ins

For marking inserted text with an underline (p. 77)

 

kbd

For marking keyboard text (p. 72)

 

label

For labeling form elements (p. 264)

 

for

For specifying which form element the label belongs to

 

legend

For labeling fieldsets (p. 260)

 

align

For aligning legends

D

li

For creating a list item (p. 216)

 

type

For determining which symbols or type of numerals should begin the list item

D

value

For determining the initial value of the first list item

D

link

For linking to an external style sheet (p. 129)

 

href

For specifying the URL of the style sheet

 

media

For noting a style sheet's purpose (pp. 133, 204, 210)

 

title

For labeling alternate style sheets (p. 130)

 

type

For noting a style sheet's MIME type

 

rel

For indicating that a style sheet is preferred or alternate (pp. 129, 130)

 

map

For creating a client-side image map (p. 117)

 

name

For naming a map so it can be referenced later

 

meta

  

content

For adding extra information about the Web page itself (pp. 310, 320, 330, 363, 364, 365, 366)

 

http-equiv

For creating automatic jumps to other pages (p. 310), setting the default scripting language (p. 320), and declaring the character encoding (p. 330)

 

name

For identifying extra information about the Web page (pp. 363, 364, 365, 366)

 

noframes

For providing alternatives to frames (see Web site)

F

noscript

For providing alternatives to scripts (p. 317)

 

object

For embedding objects in Web pages (pp. 286, 288, 290, 302, 304, 305, 306, 308)

 

align

For aligning objects

D

border

For creating (or hiding) a border around an object

D

classid

It is supposed to be a URL that specifies the location of an object's "implementation" but currently is incorrectly used by Microsoft to call its ActiveX controls

 

codebase

It is supposed to be the base URL for resolving relative URLs in the other attributes, but in fact is mostly used to specify the location of the desired multimedia player

 

data

For identifying the source of the multimedia file to be embedded

 

hspace, vspace

For specifying the amount of space around an object

D

name

For identifying the object (e.g., so it can be scripted)

 

standby

For displaying a message as the object is loading

 

type

For noting the object's MIME type

 

width, height

For specifying the dimensions of the object's box

 

ol

For creating ordered lists (p. 216)

 

type

For specifying the kind of numerals that should begin each list item

D

start

For specifying the initial value of the first list item

D

optgroup

For dividing a menu into submenus (p. 267)

 

disabled

For graying out menu options until some other event occurs

 

label

For specifying how the option should appear in the menu

 

option

For creating the individual options in a form menu (p. 266)

 

disabled

For graying out menu options until some other event occurs

 

label

For specifying how the option should appear in the menu

 

selected

For making a menu option be selected by default in a blank form

 

value

For specifying the initial value of a menu option

 

p

For creating new paragraphs (p. 62)

 

align

For aligning paragraphs

D

param

For setting properties of an object (pp. 286, 288, 290, 302, 304, 305, 306, 308)

 

name

For identifying the kind of property

 

value

For setting the value of the named property

 

pre

For maintaining the spaces and returns that were in the original text (p. 73)

 

q

For quoting short passages of text (p. 74)

 

cite

For giving the URL of the source of the quote

 

s

(Same as strike) For displaying text with a line through it (see Web site)

D

samp

For displaying sample textin a monospaced font (p. 72)

 

script

For adding "automatic" scripts to a page (p. 312)

 

charset

For specifying the character set an external script is written in (p. 313)

 

language

For specifying the scripting language the script is written in

D

src

For referencing an external script (p. 313)

 

type

For specifying the scripting language the script is written in

 

select

For creating menus in forms (p. 266)

 

disabled

For graying out menu options until some other event occurs

 

name

For identifying the data collected by the menu

 

multiple

For allowing users to choose more than one option in the menu

 

size

For specifying the number of items initially visible in the menu (and for displaying the menu as a list)

 

small

For decreasing the size of text (p. 71)

 

span

For creating custom character styles (p. 65)

 

class

For naming custom styles

 

id

For identifying particular (X)HTML elements so that they can be linked to, styled, or controlled with a script

 

strike

(Same as the s element) For displaying text with a line through it (see Web site)

D

strong

For emphasizing text logically, usually in boldface (p. 70)

 

style

For adding style sheet information to a page (p. 131)

 

media

For indicating a style sheet's purpose (pp. 133, 204, 210)

 

type

For indicating a style sheet's MIME type

 

sub

For creating subscripts (p. 76)

 

sup

For creating superscripts (p. 76)

 

table

For creating tables (p. 229)

 

align

For aligning an entire table with respect to the window (p. 234)

D

bgcolor

For specifying the background color of the table (p. 240)

D

border

For specifying the thickness, if any, of the border (p. 230)

 

cellpadding

For setting the space between a cell's contents and its borders (p. 242)

 

cellspacing

For setting the amount of space between cells (p. 242)

 

frame

For displaying external borders (p. 249)

 

rules

For displaying internal borders (p. 250)

 

width

For specifying the size of the table (p. 232)

 

tbody

For identifying the body of the table (in contrast with the header (thead) or footer (tfoot) (p. 248)

 

align, valign

For aligning the contents of the body of the table

 

bgcolor

For changing the color of an entire row (p. 240)

D

TD, th

For creating regular and header cells, respectively, in a table (p. 229)

 

align, valign

For aligning a cell's contents horizontally or vertically (p. 238)

 

bgcolor

For changing the background color of a cell (p. 240)

D

char

For aligning the contents of a cell with respect to a character (p. 239)

 

colspan

For spanning a cell across more than one column (p. 244)

 

nowrap

For keeping a cell's contents on one line (p. 251)

D

rowspan

For spanning a cell across more than one row (p. 245)

 

width, height

For specifying the size of the cell (p. 232)

D

textarea

For creating text block entry areas in a form (p. 269)

 

accesskey

For adding a keyboard shortcut to a text area

 

disabled

For graying out a text block until some other event occurs

 

name

For identifying the data that is gathered with the text block

 

readonly

For protecting a text area's contents (p. 280)

 

rows, cols

For specifying the number of rows and columns in the text block

 

tfoot, thead

For identifying the footer and header area of a table (p. 248)

 

align, valign

For aligning the footer or header cells (p. 238)

 

bgcolor

For changing the color of an entire row (p. 240)

D

title

Required. For creating the title of the page in the browser's title bar area (p. 60)

 

TR

For creating rows in a table (p. 229)

 

align, valign

For aligning the contents of a row horizontally or vertically (p. 238)

 

bgcolor

For changing the color of an entire row (p. 240)

D

tt

For displaying text in a monospaced font (p. 72)

 

u

For displaying text with a line underneath it (see Web site)

D

ul

For creating unordered lists (p. 216)

 

type

For specifying the markers that should precede each list item

D





HTML, XHTML, & CSS(c) Visual QuickStart Guide
HTML, XHTML, and CSS, Sixth Edition
ISBN: 0321430840
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 340

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