T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory, Wiley, 1991.
 CompuServ Inc., Graphics Interchange Format, 1987.
 ISO/IEC 10918 International Standard (JPEG), Information Technology - Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images, 1994.
 ISO/IEC 11172 International Standard (MPEG-1), Information Technology - Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio for Digital Storage Media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s, 1993.
 ISO/IEC 13818 International Standard (MPEG-2), Information Technology - Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information, 1996.
 B. G. Haskell,A. Puri, and A. N. Netravali, Digital Video: An Introduction to MPEG-2, Chapman and Hall, 1997.
 ISO/IEC 14496 International Standard (MPEG-4), Information Technology - Coding of Audio-Visual Objects, 1999.
 Tutorial Issue on the MPEG-4 Standard, Signal Processing: Image Communication, Vol. 15, No. 4–5, January 2000.
 B. Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, Addison-Wesley, 2nd Edition, 1993.
 K. Arnold,J. Gosling, and D. Holmes, The Java Programming Language, Addison-Wesley, 3rd Edition, 1996.
 J. Levine,T. Mason, and D. Brown, lex & yacc, O'Reilly, 2nd Edition, 1992.
 S. Devillers and M. Caprioglio, Bitstream Syntax Description Language (BSDL), ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 M7433, Sydney, July 2001.
 S. Devillers,M. Amielh, and T. Planterose, Bitstream Syntax Description Language (BSDL), ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 M8273, Fairfax, May 2002.
 ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N4801, MPEG-21 Overview v.4, Fairfax, May 2002. (http://mpeg.telecomitalialab.com/standards/mpeg-21/mpeg-21.htm).
 ISO/IEC 14496-1 International Standard, Information Technology - Coding of Audio-Visual Objects - Part 1: Systems, 2001.
 Y. Fang and A. Eleftheriadis, Automatic Generation of Entropy Coding Programs Using Flavor, in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, Redondo Beach, CA, December 1998, pp. 341–346.
 C. Fogg, Survey of Software and Hardware VLC Architectures, SPIE Vol. 2186 Image and Video Compression, 1994.
 W3C Recommendation, Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition), October 2000.
 W3C Recommendation, XML Schema Part 0: Primer, XML Schema Part 1: Structures, XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, May 2001.
 W3C Recommendation, XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0, November 1999.
 A. Avaro and P. Salembier, MPEG-7 Systems: Overview, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 11 No. 6, June 2001, pp. 760–764.
 http://www.expway.tv, BiM.
 W3C Note, WAP Binary XML Content Format, June 1999.
 H. Liefke and D. Suciu, XMill: An Efficient Compressor for XML Data, in Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, 2000, pp. 153–164.
 http://www.xmls.com, XMLZip.
 W3C Recommendation, Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Specification, November 2000.
 M. Girardot and N. Sundaresan, Efficient Representation and Streaming of XML Content over the Internet Medium, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Vol. 1, New York, NY, July 2000, pp. 67–70.
 J. R. Smith and S. F. Chang, VisualSEEk: A Fully Automated Content-Based Image Query System, in Proceedings of ACM International Conference Multimedia, Boston, MA, November 1996.
 S. W. Smoliar and H. Zhang, Content-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval, IEEE Multimedia Magazine, Summer 1994.
 J. Bosak, Media-Representation Publishing: Four Myths about XML, IEEE Computer, Vol. 31 No. 10, October 1998, pp. 120–122.
 Y. Fang and A. Eleftheriadis, A Syntactic Framework for Bitstream-Level Representation of Audio-Visual Objects, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 1996, pp. II.426–II.432.
 A. Eleftheriadis, Flavor: A Language for Media Representation, in Proceedings of ACM International Conference on Multimedia, Seattle, WA, November 1997.
 A. Eleftheriadis, A Syntactic Description Language for MPEG-4, Contribution ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 M546, Dallas, November 1995
 D. Hong and A. Eleftheriadis, XFlavor: Bridging Bits and Objects in Media Representation, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 2002.
 D. Hong and A. Eleftheriadis, XFlavor: The Next Generation of Media Representation, Technical Report ee2002-05-022, Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, May 2002.