Figure 1.4: FDMA versus TDMA— (a) In FDMA, a 30-kHz channel is dedicated to each caller. (b) In TDMA, a 30-kHz channel is timeshared by three callers.
Figure 1.5: Frequency hopped spread spectrum applied in CDMA air interface.
Figure 1.6: Direct sequence spread spectrum applied in W-CDMA air interface.
Figure 1.7: Migration path from 2G to 3G wireless systems.
Figure 1.8: Wireless system architecture. (Adapted from Beaulieu, M., Wireless Internet Applications and Architecture, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 2002.)
Figure 1.9: Cellular network is a wireless LAN that has multiple base stations positioned in a hexagon.
Figure 1.10: Wireless Internet architecture using star topology.
Figure 1.11: A network topology with various wireless networks connected to the Internet. A wireless device with multiple air interfaces (MAI) can be connected to the Internet through W-LAN, W-PAN, or through a satellite network.
Figure 1.12: The architecture of the Symbian OS.
Figure 1.13: Contemporary wireless phones and handheld devices.
Figure 1.14: WAP stack consisting of six layers.
Figure 1.15: The WAP topology.
Figure 1.16: Firepad software comprises a high-speed vector rendering engine that can be used in CAD drawings.
Figure 1.17: User mobility and data rates for wireless PANs and wireless LANs. (Adapted from Pahlavan, K. and Krishnamurthy, P., Principles of Wireless Networks, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2002.)
Chapter 2: Wireless Internet > Wireless + Internet
Figure 2.1: Bit rate and mobility in WLAN and cellular systems.
Figure 2.2: Relationship of throughput to distance between transmitter and receiver in a WLAN.
Figure 2.3: Infostation system elements.
Figure 2.4: An exemplary snapshot of a CAHAN.
Chapter 3: Wireless Internet Security
Figure 3.1: WAP gateway at the service provider.
Figure 3.2: WAP gateway at the host.
Figure 3.3: Pass-through from service provider's WAP gateway to host's WAP proxy.
Chapter 4: Multimedia Streaming Over Mobile Networks: European Perspective
Figure 4.1: A typical mobile multimedia streaming system.
Figure 4.2: Network architecture for supporting HSCSD. (Source— ETSI, High speed circuit-switched data [HSCSD], Stage 2 [Release '96], GSM 03.34, v.5.2.0 [1999-05].)
Figure 4.3: The HSCSD concept in nontransparent mode. (Source— ETSI, High speed circuit-switched data [HSCSD], Stage 2 [Release '96], GSM 03.34, v.5.2.0 [1999-05].)
Figure 4.4: GPRS user plane protocol stack.
Figure 4.5: User plane protocol stack for UTRAN networks (Iu mode)
Figure 4.6: User plane protocol stack for GERAN networks.
Figure 4.7: Network elements involved in a 3G packet-switched streaming service.
Figure 4.8: System architecture of a Release 4 PSS client.
Figure 4.9: Protocol stack for Release 4 PSS.
Figure 4.10: Message exchange of a typical basic mobile streaming session.
Chapter 5: Streaming Video over Wireless Networks
Figure 5.1: Frame error rate versus packet loss rate for MPEG video data.
Figure 5.2: Reed Solomon (5,3) code applied to IP data.
Figure 5.3: A video streaming architecture using cross layer design.
Figure 5.4: Simulation flow chart.
Figure 5.5: Video PSNR for UDP, UDP lite and CUDP.
Chapter 6: Clustering and Roaming Techniques for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs
Figure 6.3: Intrazone clustering procedure. (a) Node a broadcasts a link request to its neighbors. (b) Node a receives link responses from its neighbors. (c) Node a generates its own node LSP and broadcasts it throughout the zone. (d) All nodes perform the previous steps asynchronously. (Source— Jao-Ng, M. and Lu, I.-T., A peer to peer zone-based two-level link state routing for ad hoc networks, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 17 (8), 1415–1425, 1999.)
Figure 6.4: Interzone clustering procedure. (a) Gateway nodes broadcast zone LSPs throughout the network. (b) Virtual links between adjacent zones are established. (Source— Jao-Ng, M. and Lu, I.-T., A peer to peer zone-based two-level link state routing for ad hoc networks, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 17 (8), 1415–1425, 1999.)
Figure 6.5: Clusters formed using graphical clustering.
Figure 6.6: (a) Effect of node mobility on clusters. (Source— Chen, W., Jain, N., and Suresh, S., ANMP— Ad Hoc Network Management Protocol, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 17 (8), 1506–1531, 1999.) (b) Effect of node mobility on clusters. (Source— Chen, W., Jain, N., and Suresh, S., ANMP— Ad Hoc Network Management Protocol, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 17 (8), 1506–1531, 1999.)
Figure 6.7: Control volume in graphical clustering.
Figure 6.8: Percentage of nodes unmanaged by cluster heads. (Source— Chen, W., Jain, N., and Suresh, S., ANMP— Ad Hoc Network Management Protocol, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 17 (8), 1506–1531, 1999.)
Figure 6.9: Connectivity property. (Source— Lin, C.R. and Gerla, M., Adaptive clustering for mobile wireless networks, IEEE J. Selected Areas Commun., 15 (7), 1265–1275, 1997.)
Figure 6.10: Average order of repeaters.
Figure 6.11: Example of cluster formation (highest connectivity). (Source— Gerla, M. and Tsai, J.T.C., Multiuser, mobile, multimedia radio network, Wireless Networks J., 255–265, 1995.)
Figure 6.12: Comparisons of clustering (N = 30)— random movements. (Source— Gerla, M. and Tsai, J.T.C., Multiuser, mobile, multimedia radio network, Wireless Networks J., 255–265, 1995.)
Figure 6.13: The nested cluster architecture.
Figure 6.14: Quasihierarchical routing versus strict hierarchical routing. (Source— Perkins, C.E., Ad Hoc Networks, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 2001.)
Chapter 7: VoIP Services in Wireless Networks
Figure 7.1: GPRS network. SMS-MSC— Short Messaging Services-Mobile Switch Center; PLMN— Public land mobile network; GGSN— Gateway GPRS Support Node; BSC— Base Station Controller; SGSN— Serving GPRS Support Node; MS— Mobile Station; BTS— Base Station; EIR— Equipment Identifying Register; VLR— Visiting Location Register; HLR— Home Location Register.
Figure 7.2: Schematic diagram for VoIP implementation. AP— Access points; GW— Gateway.
Figure 7.3: H.323 system components.
Figure 7.4: H.323 protocol relationships.
Figure 7.5: H.323 messages.
Figure 7.6: SIP signaling for VoIP.
Figure 7.7: SIP mobility architecture components.
Figure 7.8: High-level view of VoIP implementation.
Figure 7.9: Call setup delay (9.6 kbps).
Figure 7.10: Call setup delay (19.2 kbps).
Figure 7.11: Comparison with NetMeeting results (9.6 kbps).
Figure 7.12: Comparison with NetMeeting results (19.2 kbps).
Figure 7.13: Voice payload design of GPRS VoIP.
Figure 7.14: Overhead vs. delay due to packet bundling.
Figure 7.15: GPRS burst level blocking without silent detection.
Figure 7.16: GRPS burst level blocking with silent detection
Chapter 8: Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and Mobile Wireless Access
Figure 8.1: Get Rid of the Phones
Chapter 9: User Mobility in IP Networks: Current Issues and Recent Developments
Figure 9.1: Mobile IP components.
Figure 9.2: The architecture of UPT.
Figure 9.3: Call establishment with SIP servers.
Figure 9.4: An illustration of the necessity of micro-mobility management in IP networking— (a) signaling and rerouting without the support of micro mobility; (b) signaling and rerouting with the support of micro mobility.
Figure 9.5: Various schemes for resource preallocation— (a) preconfigured anchor rerouting; (b) preconfigured path extensions; (c) preconfigured tunneling tree.
Chapter 10: Wireless Local Access to the Mobile Internet
Figure 10.1: The 802.11 standard and the ISO model.
Figure 10.2: Infrastructure mode.
Figure 10.3: Ad hoc mode.
Figure 10.4: Standard 802.11 frame format.
Figure 10.5: Overview of HiperLAN standards.
Figure 10.6: A Bluetooth scatternet of four piconets.
Figure 10.7: The Bluetooth protocol stack.
Figure 10.8: Mobility as an address translation problem.
Figure 10.9: Basic mobile IP scenario.
Figure 10.10: Triangular routing.
Chapter 11: Location Prediction Algorithms for Mobile Wireless Systems
Figure 11.1: Example of a Cell Boundary Graph and Movement History
Figure 11.2: An example LZ parsing tree.
Figure 11.3: Hierarchical location prediction process. (Source— Liu, T., Bahl, P., and Chlamtac, I., Mobility modeling, location tracking, and trajectory prediction in wireless ATM networks, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., 16 (6), 922–936, 1998.)
Figure 11.4: Benefit of local prediction for selecting a candidate UMP. (Source— Liu, T., Bahl, P., and Chlamtac, I., Mobility modeling, location tracking, and trajectory prediction in wireless ATM networks, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., 16 (6), 922–936, 1998.)
Chapter 12: Handoff and Rerouting in Cellular Data Networks
Figure 12.1: Architecture of a cellular data network.
Figure 12.2: Rerouting process.
Figure 12.3: Classification of rerouting schemes.
Figure 12.4: Rerouting handshaking without hints.
Figure 12.5: Rerouting handshaking with hints.
Figure 12.6: Full rerouting without hints.
Figure 12.7: Full rerouting with hints.
Figure 12.8: Partial rerouting without hints.
Figure 12.9: Tree-group rerouting without hints.
Figure 12.10: Tree-virtual rerouting without hints.
Figure 12.11: Cell forwarding rerouting without hints.
Figure 12.12: Performance metrics dependent on path length for rerouting— (a) service disruption time; (b) buffering at mobile host; (c) buffering at base station (uplink); (d) buffering at base station (downlink); (e) total rerouting completion time.
Figure 12.13: Ghai and Singh's scheme— (a) worst case; (b) best case.
Figure 12.14: Core-based tree scheme.
Figure 12.15: IS-41(c) scheme.
Figure 12.16: Racherla's scheme.
Figure 12.17: Biswas' scheme.
Figure 12.18: Effect of the moving distance on the total rerouting distance for various rerouting schemes.
Figure 12.19: Effect of the moving distance on the cumulative connection path length for various rerouting schemes.
Figure 12.20: Effect of the moving distance on the number of connections established or torn down for various rerouting schemes.
Chapter 13: Wireless Communications using Bluetooth
Figure 13.1: Frequency hopping and time-division duplexing. During even-numbered slots, the master device transmits and the slave device receives. During odd-numbered slots, the slave device transmits and the master device receives.
Figure 13.2: Scatternet examples— (a) piconet 1 and piconet 2 share a common slave device; (b) a device acts as slave in piconet 1 and master in piconet 2.
Figure 13.3: Bluetooth protocol stack.
Figure 13.4: Packet structure of a typical Bluetooth packet.
Figure 13.5: State transitions involved in establishing and terminating a Bluetooth link.
Figure 13.6: LM connection request transactions— In both cases, the transaction is initiated by LM 1 (on device 1). (a) LM 2 rejects the request for establishing a connection, and the transaction terminates; (b) LM 2 accepts the request, LM 1 and LM 2 negotiate the link parameters, the negotiation process is completed, and the connection is established.
Figure 13.7: L2CAP channels between three different devices. Device A maintains two connectionless (CL) channels, one each with Device B and Device C. Devices A and B share a bidirectional connection-oriented (CO) channel also, as do Device B and Device C. Note that all the channels terminate at endpoints in the L2CAP entities of the different devices. Each of these endpoints is assigned a CID by its L2CAP entity. The endpoints in each of the devices are uniquely associated with some recipient application.
Figure 13.8: All thirteen profiles and their inheritance relationships are depicted. Each profile inherits from the profile that encloses it. The four fundamental profiles (GAP, SDAP, SPP, and GOEP) are not shaded.
Chapter 14: Multiantenna Technology for High-Speed Wireless Internet Access
Figure 14.1: Propagation scenario with local scattering around the terminal spanning a certain azimuth angle spread at the base station.
Figure 14.2: Single-user throughput (Mbps) supported in 90 percent of locations vs. range (km), with transmit diversity at the base station and a single omnidirectional antenna at the terminal. nT is the number of 15-dB uncorrelated antennas at the base. Transmit power P = 10 W; bandwidth B = 5 MHz.
Figure 14.3: Single-user throughput (Mbps) supported in 90 percent of locations vs. range (km) with MTMR technology. n is the number of 15-dB antennas at the base station, as well as the number of omnidirectional antennas at the terminal. Transmit power P = 10 W; bandwidth B = 5 MHz.
Figure 14.4: Cumulative distributions of system throughput (Mbps per sector) with multiple transmit antennas only, as well as with multiple transmit and receive antennas. n is the number of antennas. System bandwidth B = 5 MHz.
Chapter 15: Location Management in Mobile Wireless Networks
Figure 15.1: Number of PAs within an LA.
Figure 15.2: Partition of location area in paging areas.
Figure 15.3: Classifications of location update strategies.
Figure 15.4: Mobile IP architecture.
Chapter 16: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Principles and Practices
Figure 16.1: Stages of MANET applications based on rate of connections and disconnections.
Figure 16.2: Mobile robots application.
Figure 16.3: Issues to be addressed by each layer of the protocol stack.
Chapter 17: Managing Location in "Universal" Location-Aware Computing
Figure 17.1: A hierarchical map and its top-level graph representation.
Figure 17.2: Encoder at the mobile, decoder at the network element.
Figure 17.3: Trie for the classic LZ symbolwise model.
Chapter 19: Wireless Technology Impacts the Enterprise Network
Figure 19.1: Wireless internal communications.
Figure 19.2: Wireless PBX system.
Figure 19.3: MicroLink microwave radio terminal.
Chapter 20: An Efficient WAP-Enabled Transaction Processing Model for Mobile Database Systems
Figure 20.1: WAP protocol stack.
Figure 20.2: WTLS architecture.
Figure 20.3: WAP architecture.
Figure 20.4: Mobile database system architecture.
Figure 20.5: Nokia mobile Internet toolkit window with a snippet of ASP coding.
Figure 20.6: Comparison of average response time with number of active connections.
Figure 20.7: Comparison of the percentage of completion with number of active connections.
Chapter 21: Mobile Video Telephony
Figure 21.1: A typical mobile video telephony system.
Figure 21.2: Standards for mobile video telephony.
Figure 21.3: System architecture of 3G-324M terminals.
Figure 21.4: 3G-324M protocol stack.
Figure 21.5: Protocol stack for PS conversational multimedia applications.
Figure 21.6: Call setup and release using SIP.
Figure 21.7: SIP call setup in 3GPP networks.
Figure 21.8: SIP call release in 3GPP networks.
Figure 21.9: Carphone 64 kbps BER = 2*2E-04 3 kmph.
Chapter 22: WAP: Transitional Technology for M-Commerce
Figure 22.1: WAP architecture.
Figure 22.2: WAP and the Web.
Chapter 23: Wireless Internet in Telemedicine
Figure 23.1: WAP programming model.
Figure 23.2: WAP architecture.
Figure 23.3: General features of the WAP-based telemedicine system.
Figure 23.4: Structure of the system.
Figure 23.5: Entity-relationship model of the database.
Figure 23.6: Flow of the WAP application; login, patient information menu, and patient general information.
Figure 23.7: Flow of the WAP application; ECG browsing, heart rate reading, and appointments.
Figure 23.8: Block diagram for the wireless ECG connection.
Figure 23.9: (a) Patient-worn unit; (b) receiving unit.
Figure 23.10: Patient-worn unit.
Figure 23.11: Receiving unit.
Figure 23.12: Interfaces of ECG recording application.
Figure 23.13: Setup for accessing WAP applications with emulation software.
Figure 23.14: (a) Login menu; (b) patient data menu.
Figure 23.15: Display of blood pressure readings. (a) readings from a single blood pressure measurement; (b) readings within a day; (c) graphical display of systolic pressures within a day; (d) graphical display of diastolic pressures within six hours.
Figure 23.16: ECG browsing. (a) ECG browsing with a 2-sec window; (b) ECG browsing with a 0.5-sec window; (c) ECG browsing with QRS occurrence times estimation function activated; (d) Chart for estimated QRS occurrence times and R-R intervals.
Figure 23.17: Display of patient general data.
Figure 23.18: Setup for accessing WAP applications with WAP phone.
Figure 23.19: User menus.
Figure 23.20: Display of blood pressure readings. (a) readings from a single blood pressure measurement; (b) BP menu; (c) graphical display of systolic pressures within a day; (d) graphical display of diastolic pressures within six hours.
Figure 23.21: ECG browsing. (a) ECG browsing with estimated QRS occurrence times; (b) Chart for estimated QRS occurrence times and R-R intervals.
Figure 23.22: Display of patient general data.
Chapter 24: Delivering Music over the Wireless Internet: From Song Distribution to Interactive Karaoke on UMTS Devices
Figure 24.1: Wireless application architecture.
Figure 24.2: Search and download over the wireless Internet.
Figure 24.3: Wireless Internet application protocol stacks.
Figure 24.4: Screenshot of the data collector application.
Figure 24.5: Header of a karaoke SMIL file.
Figure 24.6: Body of a karaoke SMIL file.
Figure 24.7: Segmentation of an IP packet into RLC data blocks.
Figure 24.8: Web server replicas and clients (big picture— song-on-demand; small picture— mobile karaoke).
Figure 24.9: Song-on-demand WNTT results for 5-MB-sized songs.
Figure 24.10: Song-on-demand WNTT results for 3-MB-sized songs.
Figure 24.11: Mobile karaoke WNTT measurements for delivering song 1 (upper graphs) and song 2 (lower graphs).
Figure 24.12: A screenshot of the mobile karaoke service.