S

Saint scanner, 69, 71
satellite imaging tools, 1213
scanning, 2953
ACM, 264287
ARP pings , 3839
Asterisk, 327338
CCM, 224236
described, 30
host/device discovery, 3243
host/device identification, 4753
ICMP ping sweeps , 3337
INVITE, 7883, 9093, 95
MAC addresses, 171172
Nessus scanner, 69
NeWT scanner, 69
OPTIONS, 8495
port, 4347
REGISTER, 9093, 95
Retina scanner, 69, 70
Saint scanner, 69, 71
service discovery, 4347
SIP environment, 3031
SiVuS. See SiVuS
SNMP scans , 4143
SNMP sweeps, 4143
stack fingerprinting, 4853
TCP ping scans, 3941
TCP pings, 3941
TCP SYN scans, 4447
UDP scans, 35, 4447, 265287
VDP scans, 4447
SCCP (Skinny Client Control Protocol), 210217
SCCP call trace, 212217
Scholz, Hendrick, 68
SDP (Session Description Protocol) message, 66
search engines, 23. See also Google
Secunia database, 68
Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP), 164165
Secure RTP (SRTP), 479
SecureLogix, 95
security
Asterisk, 346349
Cisco Security Agent, 244245
Cisco switches, 183
CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey, 10
dependencies, 11
infrastructure, 10
insider abuse, 10
passwords. See passwords
port, 183
SecurityFocus database, 17, 68
social threats. See social threats
Transport Layer Security, 184, 433434, 465
VoIP security pyramid, 810
security bugs , 370, 385. See also fuzzing
security researchers, 372, 385
SecurityFocus database, 17, 68
servers
Avaya, 296308
Cisco Unity Server, 224230
DHCP, 141145, 224
DNS, 27, 146
hardening, 136
IIS web, 245
location, 57
media, 253254, 313
proxy, 57
redirect, 57
registrar, 57
TFTP. See TFTP servers
service discovery, 4347
Session Description Protocol (SDP) message, 66
session encryption, 184
Session Initiation Protocol. See SIP
SFTF (SIP Forum Test Framework), 383
Sherman, Troy, 206
signaling attacks, 168, 196. See also SIP signaling attacks
Simple Network Management Protocol. See SNMP
Simple Traversal of the UDP Network (STUN), 355
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
architecture elements, 57
basics, 5663
port scanning, 43
resources, 63
typical call flow, 6063
user /extension enumeration, 7395
SIP environment, 3031
SIP firewalls
audio insertion/mixing attacks, 480
DoS and, 414, 426
registration removal, 435
session teardowns, 466
SIP Forum Test Framework (SFTF), 383
SIP hashes, 174177
SIP phones. See also phones
adding new contacts for, 436437
attacks on, 414427
BYE requests , 460466
configuration files for, 45
dropping calls, 453
invalid requests, 403404
INVITE floods, 420427
MITM attacks, 455
nonexistent, 399400
passwords, 186
phishing attacks, 454
rebooting, 466469
reconfiguring, 186
registration addition, 435438
registration hijacking, 438456
registration removal, 430435
ringing continually, 423424
sending all inbound calls, 454
session teardown , 460466
swapping inbound calls, 453454
TCP and, 465
UDP floods, 414419
using SIPSCAN against, 9395
SIP proxies
attacks against, 393395
authentication, 407409, 466, 470471
breaking authentication, 440445
compromising , 151152
invalid domain name , 402403
invalid IP domain address, 400402
invalid SIP phone requests, 403404
INVITE floods, 395414
registration removal, 430435
rogue applications, 186191
rogue SIP proxies, 197199
sending all signaling through, 460
targeting with nonexistent SIP phone, 399400
teardowns through, 460466
UDP floods, 393395
SIP requests, 57, 58, 6063
SIP responses, 5863
SIP rogue applications, 186199
SIP signaling attacks, 429480.  See also signaling attacks
additional tools for, 480
redirection attacks, 456460
references, 481
registration addition, 435438
registration hijacking, 438456
registration removal, 430435
RTP inserting/mixing, 471480
session teardowns, 460466
SIP phone reboot, 466469
spoofing caller ID, 470471
SIP systems
authentication, 434, 479
encryption, 479
signaling attacks. See SIP
signaling attacks
TCP/IP for, 425
VLANs, 434, 466, 479480
SIP UDP port, 189
SIP URIs, 57
SIP users, 7395
SIP Vulnerability Scanner. See SiVuS
SipCrack tool, 480
Sipera, 95
sip_rogue tool, 186198, 455
sipsak tool, 8790, 480
SIPSCAN tool, 9094
Sipura phones, 21
SiVuS (SIP Vulnerability Scanner)
banner grabbing , 68, 69
INVITE floods, 409410, 411
INVITE username enumeration, 7880
registration addition with, 437, 438
registration removal, 432, 433
SIP phone reboot, 468, 469
targeting SIP phones with, 422423
Skinny Client Control Protocol.     See SCCP
Skora.net VoIP Tools, 480
Skype, 354357
SkypeKiller, 356357
smap tool, 6869
smurf attacks, 133
sniffers
Cain and Abel, 160163, 171177
dsniff, 182183
ettercap, 178182
network, 126129
sniffing attacks
CDP, 221224
TFTP configuration files, 148, 157158
Wi-finetworks, 149150
wired hubs, 149150
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
controlling access to, 295
disabling, 295
overview, 4142
secure versions of, 295
SNMP community strings, 42, 288, 295
SNMP enumeration, 101113
ACM, 288295
Asterisk, 339
CCM, 237239
countermeasures, 113, 237239
tools for, 101102
SNMP MIB Browser, 108113
SNMP ports, 42
SNMP Sweep tool, 42
SNMP sweeps, 4143
SNMP v1 protocol, 42, 113
SNMP v2 protocol, 42, 113
SNMP v3 protocol, 42, 113, 237
snmp-audit tool, 42
snmpenum tool, 42
SNMPSweep tool, 101
snmpwalk tool, 42, 101107, 288295
Snom phones, 2122, 151, 334335
SNScan tool, 42, 43
social threats
countermeasures, 514515
email phishing, 505516
email SPAM, 484, 488
IVR systems, 510512
obtaining 800 numbers , 510513
references, 516
SPIT. See SPIT
voice phishing, 505516
softphones, 351363. See also phones
Cisco, 210
Gizmo projects, 357359
instant messaging clients , 359362
overview, 352353
references, 363
security of, 353, 355357
Skype software, 354357
SolarWinds DNS Analyzer, 2527
SolarWinds Ping Sweep tool, 3536
Solution Reference Network Design (SRND), 217219
Song, Dug, 152153
SonicWall, 358
SPAM. See also SPIT
email, 484, 488
voice, 484, 487504
vs. SPIT, 490491
SPAM over Internet Telephony.     See SPIT
Spanning Tree Algorithm (STA), 155156
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), 155156
Spencer, Mark, 324
SPIT (SPAM over Internet Telephony), 487504
authenticated identity, 501
case study, 484485
countermeasures, 501503
future problems with, 492500
generation of, 492500
legal measures against, 502
overview, 488490
resources, 503504
vs. SPAM, 490491
SPIT filters, 502503
spitter tool, 492500
splitter tool, 485
spoofing
ARP, 182, 184, 247
caller ID, 470471
DHCP, 246
IP addresses, 133
VLANS and, 184
SRND (Solution Reference Network Design), 217219
SRTP (Secure RTP), 479
SSRC field, 65
STA (Spanning Tree Algorithm), 155156
stack fingerprinting, 4853
static OS mappings, 183
STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), 155156
STUN (Simple Traversal of the UDP Network), 355
SUBSCRIBE requests, 58, 466467
supernodes, 355
SuperScan tool, 35, 37
switch ports, 154
switches
ACM, 259
Asterisk, 326
Cisco. See Cisco switches
compromising, 151
failure to open , 152154
LAN, 413, 426
layer 2, 155
layer 3, 155
SYN flag, 39
SYN flood attacks, 10, 132133, 146
SYN packets, 3941


Hacking Exposed VoIP. Voice Over IP Security Secrets & Solutions
Hacking Exposed VoIP: Voice Over IP Security Secrets & Solutions
ISBN: 0072263644
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 158

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