7 Glossary


7 Glossary

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode, switching technique between cells used to accommodate many different traffics in data transmission.
Beam collimation
beams are collimated when they propagate parallel along the same axis toward the same ˜target .
BER
Bit Error Rate for example 10 ˆ’ 9 corresponds to one wrong bit among 10 9 bits.
Cornea
transparent thin skin which covers the aqueous humor in front of the iris and the lens and sealed to the sclera.
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.
Divergence (beam)
Cross section increase of an electromagnetic beam vs the distance to the source.
ENSSAT
Ecole Nationale Sup rieure de Sciences Appliqu es et de Technologie.
ETSI
European Telecommunication Standards Institute.
Hiperlan
HIgh PERformances Radio Local Area Network.
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
International industrial organisation in the field of electrical and electronics components and systems whose one of the main tasks is the definition and the publication of standards.
IrDA (Infrared Data Association)
created in 1993 to coordinate infrared optical transmissions of data.
LAUBS
Association of research laboratories of Southern Brittany University.
Lens
transparent, biconvex, nearly spherical lens which focuses the images through the pupil on the retina .
LPIO
Laboratory of Insulator Physics and Optronics.
LPUB/OCP
Physics Laboratory of Burgundy University / Near Field Optics.
MAC
the Media Access Control is a protocol which manages the stations connected to and sharing the same network/resources and gives them the right to transmit.
Mode (electromagnetism)
one solution of Maxwell equations which represents an electromagnetic field in a given space and belonging to a set of independent solutions defined by given boundary conditions.
Multimode source
source of electromagnetic waves propagating in several modes.
NRZ
Non-Return to Zero, simplest coding/modulation digital scheme one can design from pure binary concept.
Numerical Aperture (N.A.) of an instrument
N.A. = n .sin where n and are respectively the refractive index of the incident beam medium and the instrument acceptance angle in the same medium.
OSI model ( Open Systems Interconnect)
the seven layer model of an open system.
Photo-detector
any device which responds electrically to an optical illumination .
Photodiodes
usually semiconductor p/n-junction devices used under a reverse bias.
PIN photodiode
a thick intrinsic semiconductor region has been inserted between the p- and the n- regions of a junction to improve the photon absorption and therefore its quantum efficiency.
Retina
sensitive area of the internal ocular sphere which receives the images, set of sensitive cells which convert the image local light energy into chemical energy transmitted along the optical nerves to the brain.
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network.
WPAN
Wireless Personal Area Network.



Communicating With Smart Objects(c) Developing Technology for Usable[... ]stems 2003
Linux Troubleshooting for System Administrators and Power Users
ISBN: N/A
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2005
Pages: 191

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