Describe LAN segmentation with VLANs
Ensure broadcast domain integrity by establishing VLANs
Configure access ports for static membership of single and multiple VLANs
Describe the different Trunking Protocols
Configure ports as 802.1Q trunks and verify their operation
Configure ports as ISL trunks and verify their operation
Understand the operation of VTPv1 and VTPv2, including the functions of domains, modes, advertisements, and pruning
Configure switches in VTP domains in server, client, and transparent modes
Understand local VLANs and end-to-end VLANs, and determine which to use
Design VLAN configurations with VTP for operation in a specific scenario
Understand managed VLAN services
Know the features and functionality of 802.1Q Tunneling (802.1QinQ) in service provider networks
Configure auxiliary VLANs with IP technology
You likely already know that a LAN is a group of stations that use broadcast frames to share common services. Most legacy protocols use broadcasts to carry out simple administrative functions, such as finding a server, advertising their services, and even acquiring naming and addressing information. These days, we can go much further using a virtual local area network (VLAN).
A VLAN is a logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively defined ports on a layer 2 switch. By creating these administrative groupings, you are able to create smaller broadcast domains within a switch by assigning different ports in the switch to different subnetworks. A VLAN is treated as its own subnet or broadcast domain. This means that when frames are broadcast, they are switched between ports only within the same VLAN.
By using VLANs, you're no longer confined to creating workgroups based on physical locations. VLANs can be organized by location, function, department, or even the application or protocol used, regardless of where the resources or users are located. VLANs can be created locally on a single switch, or can be extended across many switches in a LAN, using special trunk protocols to carry the additional VLAN header information. This technique is called frame tagging, and uses special identification methods that either encapsulate a frame or insert a new field in a frame, to identify it as belonging to a particular VLAN as it traverses a switched internetwork fabric.
One of the real problems facing network administrators managing large switched networks is that of consistency. With VLAN numbers and names requiring unique configuration, it is easy to lose control of the process, resulting in conflicting information about the same VLAN.
VTP-the VLAN Trunking Protocol-was developed to deal precisely with this problem. By creating a process where one switch can act as a server, updating other switches in the same domain, consistency of VLAN description can easily be achieved.