Part I: The Struts Framework

James Holmes

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Struts: The Complete Reference, Second Edition

Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication.

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ISBN-13: 978-0-07-226386-2
ISBN-10:        0-07-226386-5

Sponsoring Editor
Wendy Rinaldi

Editorial Supervisor
Jody McKenzie

Project Editor
Carolyn Welch

Acquisitions Coordinator
Mandy Canales

Herbert Schildt

Technical Editor
Wendy Smoak

Contributing Editor
Bill Siggelkow

Copy Editor
Bob Campbell

Carolyn Welch

Claire Splan

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George Anderson

Apollo Publishing Services

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To my mother, who once chided me for spending so much time in front of the computer, but has stood behind me steadfast and given me the platform from which to flourish.

About the Author

James Holmes is a leading Java Web development authority. He is a committer on the Struts project, and the creator of the most popular Struts development tool, Struts Console. Additionally, Oracle Magazine named him "Java Developer of the Year" in 2002 for his work with the Struts framework and Oracle JDeveloper. Holmes is the author of the first edition of Struts: The Complete Reference and the co-author of JavaServer Faces: The Complete Reference and The Art of Java.

About the Technical Editor

Wendy Smoak is a Sr. Systems Analyst at Arizona State University, and a member of the Apache Software Foundation. She can be reached at

About the Editor

Herbert Schildt is a leading authority on the C, C++, Java, and C# languages, and is a master Windows programmer. His programming books have sold more than 3.5 million copies worldwide and have been translated into all major foreign languages. He is author of numerous bestsellers, including Java: A Beginner's Guide, Java: The Complete Reference, C++: A Beginner's Guide, C++: The Complete Reference, C: The Complete Reference, and C#: The Complete Reference, and the co-author of The Art of Java. Schildt holds both graduate and undergraduate degrees from the University of Illinois. He can be reached at his consulting office at (217) 586-4683. His Web site is


Writing this book has been the effort of not one, but many. It would not have been possible without the help and support from several people. I'd like to thank everyone at McGraw-Hill. In particular, I want to thank Wendy Rinaldi for giving me the opportunity to write this book and for introducing me to and giving me the opportunity to work with Herb Schildt, whom I'd also like to thank. Not only has Herb been the editor on this book, providing me with endless insight and wisdom, he has become a great friend and a mentor.

Special thanks also go to Bill Siggelkow for providing the initial drafts of Chapters 11 and 12, Wendy Smoak for tech editing the second edition of the book, and James Mitchell for tech editing the first edition. Their efforts are sincerely appreciated.

Struts. The Complete Reference
Struts: The Complete Reference, 2nd Edition
ISBN: 0072263865
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2004
Pages: 165
Authors: James Holmes

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