12.4 Channels

     

Channels move blocks of data into and out of buffers to and from various I/O sources such as files, sockets, datagrams, and so forth. The channel class hierarchy is rather convoluted, with multiple interfaces and many optional operations. However, for purposes of network programming there are only three really important channel classes, SocketChannel , ServerSocketChannel , and DatagramChannel ; and for the TCP connections we've talked about so far you only need the first two.

12.4.1 SocketChannel

The SocketChannel class reads from and writes to TCP sockets. The data must be encoded in ByteBuffer objects for reading and writing. Each SocketChannel is associated with a peer Socket object that can be used for advanced configuration, but this requirement can be ignored for applications where the default options are fine.

12.4.1.1 Connecting

The SocketChannel class does not have any public constructors. Instead, you create a new SocketChannel object using one of the two static open ( ) methods :

 public static SocketChannel open(SocketAddress remote) throws IOException public static SocketChannel open( ) throws IOException 

The first variant makes the connection. This method blocks; that is, the method will not return until the connection is made or an exception is thrown. For example:

 SocketAddress address = new InetSocketAddress("www.cafeaulait.org",  80); SocketChannel channel = SocketChannel.open(address); 

The noargs version does not immediately connect. It creates an initially unconnected socket that must be connected later using the connect( ) method. For example:

 SocketChannel channel = SocketChannel.open( ); SocketAddress address = new InetSocketAddress("www.cafeaulait.org",  80); channel.connect(address); 

You might choose this more roundabout approach in order to configure various options on the channel and/or the socket before connecting. Specifically, use this approach if you want to open the channel without blocking:

 SocketChannel channel = SocketChannel.open( ); SocketAddress address = new InetSocketAddress("www.cafeaulait.org",  80); channel.configureBlocking(false); channel.connect( ); 

With a non-blocking channel, the connect( ) method returns immediately, even before the connection is established. The program can do other things while it waits for the operating system to finish the connection. However, before it can actually use the connection, the program must call finishConnect() :

 public abstract boolean finishConnect( ) throws IOException 

(This is only necessary in non-blocking mode. For a blocking channel this method returns true immediately.) If the connection is now ready for use, finishConnect( ) returns true . If the connection has not been established yet, finishConnect( ) returns false . Finally, if the connection could not be established, for instance because the network is down, this method throws an exception.

If the program wants to check whether the connection is complete, it can call these two methods:

 public abstract boolean isConnected( ) public abstract boolean isConnectionPending( ) 

The isConnected( ) method returns true if the connection is open. The isConnectionPending( ) method returns true if the connection is still being set up but is not yet open.

12.4.1.2 Reading

To read from a SocketChannel , first create a ByteBuffer the channel can store data in. Then pass it to the read( ) method:

 public abstract int read(ByteBuffer dst) throws IOException 

The channel fills the buffer with as much data as it can, then returns the number of bytes it put there. If it encounters the end of stream, it returns -1. If the channel is blocking, this method will read at least one byte or return -1 or throw an exception. If the channel is non-blocking, however, this method may return 0.

Because the data is stored into the buffer at the cursor position, which is updated automatically as more data is added, you can keep passing the same buffer to the read( ) method until the buffer is filled. For example, this loop will read until the buffer is filled or the end of stream is detected :

 while (buffer.hasRemaining( ) && channel.read(buffer) != -1) ; 

It is sometimes useful to be able to fill several buffers from one source. This is called a scatter . These two methods accept an array of ByteBuffer objects as arguments and fill each one in turn :

 public final long read(ByteBuffer[] dsts)throws IOException public final long read(ByteBuffer[] dsts, int offset, int length)                                                           throws IOException 

To fill these, just loop while the last buffer in the list has space remaining. For example:

 ByteBuffer[] buffers = new ByteBuffer[2]; buffers[0] = ByteBuffer.allocate(1000); buffers[1] = ByteBuffer.allocate(1000); while (buffers[1].hasRemaining( ) && channel.read(buffers) != -1) ; 

12.4.1.3 Writing

Socket channels have both read and write methods. In general, they are full duplex. In order to write, simply fill a ByteBuffer , flip it, and pass it to one of the write methods, which drains it while copying the data onto the outputpretty much the reverse of the reading process.

The basic write( ) method takes a single buffer as an argument:

 public abstract int write(ByteBuffer src) throws IOException 

As with reads (and unlike OutputStream s), this method is not guaranteed to write the complete contents of the buffer if the channel is non-blocking. Again, however, the cursor-based nature of buffers enables you to easily call this method again and again until the buffer is fully drained and the data has been completely written:

 while (buffer.hasRemaining( ) && channel.write(buffer) != -1) ; 

It is often useful to be able to write data from several buffers onto one socket. This is called a gather . For example, you might want to store the HTTP header in one buffer and the HTTP body in another buffer. The implementation might even fill the two buffers simultaneously using two threads or overlapped I/O. These two methods accept an array of ByteBuffer objects as arguments, and drain each one in turn:

 public final long write(ByteBuffer[] dsts)throws IOException public final long write(ByteBuffer[] dsts, int offset, int length)                                                           throws IOException 

The first variant drains all the buffers. The second method drains length buffers, starting with the one at offset .

12.4.1.4 Closing

Just as with regular sockets, you should close a channel when you're done with it to free up the port and any other resources it may be using:

 public void close( ) throws IOException 

Closing an already closed channel has no effect. Attempting to write data to or read data from a closed channel throws an exception. If you're uncertain whether a channel has been closed, check with isOpen( ) :

 public boolean isOpen( ) 

Naturally, this returns false if the channel is closed, true if it's open. ( close( ) and isOpen( ) are the only two methods declared in the Channel interface and shared by all channel classes.)

12.4.2 ServerSocketChannel

The ServerSocketChannel class has one purpose: to accept incoming connections. You cannot read from, write to, or connect a ServerSocketChannel . The only operation it supports is accepting a new incoming connection. The class itself only declares four methods, of which accept() is the most important. ServerSocketChannel also inherits several methods from its superclasses, mostly related to registering with a Selector for notification of incoming connections. And finally, like all channels it has a close( ) method that's used to shut down the server socket.

12.4.2.1 Creating server socket channels

The static factory method ServerSocketChannel.open() creates a new ServerSocketChannel object. However, the name is a little deceptive. This method does not actually open a new server socket. Instead, it just creates the object. Before you can use it, you need to use the socket( ) method to get the corresponding peer ServerSocket . At this point, you can configure any server options you like, such as the receive buffer size or the socket timeout, using the various setter methods in ServerSocket . Then connect this ServerSocket to a SocketAddress for the port you want to bind to. For example, this code fragment opens a ServerSocketChannel on port 80:

 try {   ServerSocketChannel server= ServerSocketChannel.open( );   ServerSocket socket = serverChannel.socket( );   SocketAddress address = new InetSocketAddress(80);   socket.bind(address); } catch (IOException ex) {   System.err.println("Could not bind to port 80 because " + ex.getMessage( )); } 

A factory method is used here rather than a constructor so that different virtual machines can provide different implementations of this class, more closely tuned to the local hardware and OS. However, this factory is not user -configurable. The open( ) method always returns an instance of the same class when running in the same virtual machine.

12.4.2.2 Accepting connections

Once you've opened and bound a ServerSocketChannel object, the accept() method can listen for incoming connections:

 public abstract SocketChannel accept( ) throws IOException 

accept( ) can operate in either blocking or non-blocking mode. In blocking mode, the accept( ) method waits for an incoming connection. It then accepts that connection and returns a SocketChannel object connected to the remote client. The thread cannot do anything until a connection is made. This strategy might be appropriate for simple servers that can respond to each request immediately. Blocking mode is the default.

A ServerSocketChannel can also operate in non-blocking mode. In this case, the accept( ) method returns null if there are no incoming connections. Non-blocking mode is more appropriate for servers that need to do a lot of work for each connection and thus may want to process multiple requests in parallel. Non-blocking mode is normally used in conjunction with a Selector . To make a ServerSocketChannel non-blocking, pass false to its configureBlocking() method.

The accept( ) method is declared to throw an IOException if anything goes wrong. There are several subclasses of IOException that indicate more detailed problems, as well as a couple of runtime exceptions:


ClosedChannelException

You cannot reopen a ServerSocketChannel after closing it.


AsynchronousCloseException

Another thread closed this ServerSocketChannel while accept( ) was executing.


ClosedByInterruptException

Another thread interrupted this thread while a blocking ServerSocketChannel was waiting.


NotYetBoundException

You called open( ) but did not bind the ServerSocketChannel 's peer ServerSocket to an address before calling accept( ) . This is a runtime exception, not an IOException .


SecurityException

The security manager refused to allow this application to bind to the requested port.

12.4.3 The Channels Class

Channels is a simple utility class for wrapping channels around traditional I/O-based streams, readers, and writers, and vice versa. It's useful when you want to use the new I/O model in one part of a program for performance, but still interoperate with legacy APIs that expect streams. It has methods that convert from streams to channels and methods that convert from channels to streams, readers, and writers:

 public static InputStream newInputStream(ReadableByteChannel ch) public static OutputStream newOutputStream(WritableByteChannel ch)  public static ReadableByteChannel newChannel(InputStream in) public static WritableByteChannel newChannel(OutputStream out) public static Reader newReader (ReadableByteChannel channel,    CharsetDecoder dec, int minBufferCap) public static Reader newReader (ReadableByteChannel ch, String encoding) public static Writer newWriter (WritableByteChannel ch, String encoding) 

The SocketChannel class discussed in this chapter implements both the ReadableByteChannel and WritableByteChannel interfaces seen in these signatures. ServerSocketChannel implements neither of these because you can't read from or write to it.

For example, all current XML APIs use streams, files, readers, and other traditional I/O APIs to read the XML document. If you're writing an HTTP server designed to process SOAP requests, you may want to read the HTTP request bodies using channels and parse the XML using SAX for performance. In this case, you'd need to convert these channels into streams before passing them to XMLReader 's parse() method:

 SocketChannel channel = server.accept( ); processHTTPHeader(channel); XMLReader parser = XMLReaderFactory.createXMLReader( ); parser.setContentHandler(someContentHandlerObject); InputStream in = Channels.newInputStream(channel); parser.parse(in); 



Java Network Programming
Java Network Programming, Third Edition
ISBN: 0596007213
EAN: 2147483647
Year: 2003
Pages: 164

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