SAS.GRAPH 9.1 Reference, Volumes I and II Authors: SAS Institute Published year: 2004 Pages: 287-290/342

Appendix 2: Recommended Reading

Here is the recommended reading list for this title:

• Annotate: Simply the Basics

• The How-To Book for SAS/GRAPH Software

• Multiple-Plot Displays: Simplified with Macros

• Output Delivery System: The Basics

• SAS Language Reference: Concepts

• SAS Language Reference: Dictionary

• SAS Output Delivery System: User s Guide

• SAS System for Statistical Graphics

• Visualizing Categorical Data

For a complete list of SAS publications , see the current SAS Publishing Catalog . To order the most current publications or to receive a free copy of the catalog, contact a SAS representative at

SAS Publishing Sales
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Telephone: (800) 727-3228*
Fax: (919) 677-8166
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* For other SAS Institute business, call (919) 677-8000.

Customers outside the United States should contact their local SAS office.

Glossary

A

absolute coordinates

coordinates measured from the origin of the coordinate system. In two-dimensional graphs, the origin is (0,0). In three-dimensional graphs, the origin is (0,0,0). See also relative coordinates.

aspect ratio

the ratio of width to height (that is, width divided by height) in an output area such as a display, plotter, or film recorder. In SAS/GRAPH software, the ASPECT= graphics option simulates a change in the aspect ratio of the display, causing fonts and circles to be compressed horizontally or vertically or both.

axis

a one-dimensional line representing the zero point on a scale used to plot values of x , y , or z coordinates. In SAS/GRAPH software, in two dimensions, the X axis represents the horizontal plane, and the Y axis represents the vertical plane. In three dimensions, the X axis represents width, the Y axis represents depth, and the Z axis represents height. See also Cartesian coordinate system. The term axis may also refer collectively to the axis line, the major and minor tick marks, the major tick mark values, and the axis label.

axis area

an area bounded by axes. In SAS/GRAPH software, this area may be enclosed by an axis frame. See also frame.

B

baseline

in a font, the imaginary line upon which the characters rest.

block map

a three-dimensional map that uses blocks of varying heights to represent the value of a variable for each map area.

border

in SAS/GRAPH software, the line drawn around the entire graphics output area. This area includes the title and footnote areas as well as the procedure output area. See also frame.

boundary

in the GMAP procedure, a separating line or point that distinguishes between two or more unit areas or segments.

BY group

all observations with the same values for all BY variables .

BY-group processing

the process of using the BY statement to process observations that are ordered, grouped, or indexed according to the values of one or more variables. Many SAS procedures and the DATA step support BY-group processing.

BY variable

a variable named in a BY statement whose values define groups of observations to process.

C

Cartesian coordinate system

the two- or three-dimensional coordinate system in which perpendicular axes meet at the origin (0,0) or (0,0,0). Typically, Cartesian coordinate axes are called X, Y, and Z. See also axis.

Cartesian coordinates

values that locate a point in two- or three-dimensional space. Each value represents units measured along an X, Y, or Z axis. See also Cartesian coordinate system.

capline

the highest point of a normal uppercase letter. In some fonts, the capline may be above the top of the letter to allow room for an accent .

catalog

See SAS catalog.

catalog entry

See entry type and SAS catalog entry.

cell

a unit of measure defined by the number of rows and the number of columns in the graphics output area. See also aspect ratio.

CGM

an abbreviation for computer graphics metafile. A CGM is a graphics output file written in the internationally recognized format for describing computer graphics images. This standardization allows any image in a CGM to be imported and exported among different systems without error or distortion.

character string

one or more alphanumeric or other keyboard characters or both.

character value

a value that can contain alphabetic characters, numeric characters 0 through 9, and other special characters. See also character variable.

character variable

a variable whose values can consist of alphabetic and special characters as well as numeric characters.

chart

a graph in which graphics elements (bars, pie slices, and so on) show the magnitude of a statistic. The graphics elements can represent one data value or a range of data values.

chart statistic

the statistical value calculated for the chart variable: frequency, cumulative frequency, percentage, cumulative percentage, sum, or mean.

chart variable

a variable in the input data set whose values are categories of data represented by bars, blocks, slices, or spines.

choropleth map

a two-dimensional map that uses color and fill pattern combinations to represent different categories or levels of magnitude.

class variable

in some SAS procedures, a variable used to group , or classify, data. Class variables can be character or numeric. Class variables can have continuous values, but they typically have a few discrete values that define the classifications of the variable.

classification variable

See class variable.

CMYK

a color-coding scheme that specifies a color in terms of levels of cyan, magenta , yellow, and black components . The levels of each component range from 0 to 255. See also HLS, HSV, and RGB.

color map

a table that is used to translate the original colors in graphics output to different colors when replaying graphics output using the GREPLAY procedure. The table is contained in a catalog entry.

color, predefined

one of the set of colors for which SAS/GRAPH software defines and recognizes names , for example, BLACK, BLUE, and CYAN.

color, user -defined

a color expressed in CMYK, HLS, HSV, RGB, or gray-scale format. See also CMYK, HLS, HSV, RGB, and gray scale.

colors list

the list of foreground colors available for the graphics output. The colors list is either the default list established from the device entry or the list established from the colors specified with the COLORS= graphics option.

computer graphics metafile

See CGM.

confidence limits

the upper and lower values of a confidence interval. There is a percentage of confidence (typically 95%) that the true value of the parameter being estimated lies within the interval.

contour plot

a three-variable plot that uses line styles or patterns to represent levels of magnitude of z corresponding to x and y coordinates.

coordinate system

the context in which to interpret coordinates. Coordinate systems vary according to their origin, limits, and units. See also Cartesian coordinate system.

coordinates

the values representing the location of a data point or a graphics element along the X, Y, and Z axes. Coordinate values are measured from the origin of the coordinate system.

 SAS.GRAPH 9.1 Reference, Volumes I and II Authors: SAS Institute Published year: 2004 Pages: 287-290/342