Issues an operating-environment command from within a SAS session
Category: Operating Environment
See: X Statement in the documentation for your operating environment.
X < operating-environment-command >;
Using X without arguments places you in your operating environment, where you can issue commands that are specific to your environment.
specifies an operating environment command that is
In all operating environments, you can use the X statement when you run SAS in windowing or interactive line mode. In some operating environments, you can use the X statement when you run SAS in batch or
Operating Environment Information: The X statement is dependent on your operating environment. See the SAS documentation for your operating environment to determine whether it is a valid statement on your system. Keep in mind:
The way you return from operating environment mode to the SAS session is dependent on your operating environment.
The commands that you use with the X statement are specific to your operating environment.
You can use the X statement with SAS macros to write a SAS program that can run in multiple operating environments. See SAS Macro Language: Reference for information.
In a windowing session, the X command works exactly like the X statement except that you issue the command from a command line. You submit the X statement from the Program Editor window.
The X statement is similar to the SYSTEM function, the X command, and the CALL SYSTEM routine. In most cases, the X statement, X command or %SYSEXEC macro statement are preferable because they require less overhead. However, the SYSTEM function can be executed conditionally. The X statement is a global statement and executes as a DATA step is being compiled.
CALL SYSTEM Routine on page 406
SYSTEM Function on page 852
are instructions that affect your SAS session. They control the way that SAS
The syntax for specifying system options in an OPTIONS statement is
OPTIONS option(s) ;
specifies one or more SAS system options that you want to change.
The following example shows how to use the system options NODATE and LINESIZE= in an OPTIONS statement:
options nodate linesize=72;
Operating Environment Information: On the command line or in a configuration file, the syntax is specific to your operating environment. For details, see the SAS documentation for your operating environment.
Hexadecimal values for system options must begin with a number (0-9), followed by an X. For example, the following OPTIONS statement sets the linesize to 160 using a hexadecimal number:
Operating Environment Information:
SAS system options are
To determine which settings are in effect for SAS system options, use one of the following:
OPLIST system option
VERBOSE system option
Writes to the SAS log the system options that were specified in the configuration file and on the SAS invocation command line.
SAS System Options window
Lists all system option settings.
Writes system option settings to the SAS log. To display the settings of system options with a specific functionality, such as error handling, use the
proc options GROUP=errorhandling; run;
(See the Base SAS Procedures Guide for more information.)
Returns the value of a specified system option.
VOPTION Dictionary table
Located in the SASHELP library, VOPTION contains a list of all current system option settings. You can view this table with SAS Explorer, or you can extract information from the VOPTION table using PROC SQL.
dictionary.options SQL table
Accessed with the SQL procedure, this table lists the system options that are in effect.
To determine which system options are restricted by your system administrator, use the RESTRICT option of the OPTIONS procedure. The RESTRICT option displays the option s value, scope, and setting. In the following example, the SAS log shows that only one option, CMPOPT, is restricted:
proc options restrict; run;
Output 8.1: Restricted Option Information
1 proc options restrict; 2 run; SAS (r) Proprietary Software Release 9.1 TS1B0 Option Value Information For SAS Option CMPOPT Option Value: (NOEXTRAMATH NOMISSCHECK NOPRECISE NOGUARDCHECK) Option Scope: SAS Session How option value set: Site Administrator Restricted
The OPTIONS procedure displays this information for all options that are restricted. If your site administrator has not restricted any options, then the following message appears in the SAS log:
Your site administrator has not restricted any options.
To determine how a system option value was set, use the OPTIONS procedure with the VALUE option specified in the OPTIONS statement. The VALUE option displays the specified option s value and scope. For example, the following statements write a message to the SAS log that
proc options option=center value; run;
The following partial SAS log shows that the option value for CENTER was the shipped default.
Output 8.2: Option Value Information for the System Option CENTER
2 proc options option=center value; 3 run; Option Value Information for SAS Option CENTER Option Value: CENTER Option Scope: Default How option value set: Shipped Default
If no value is assigned to a character system option, then SAS
You can quickly obtain basic descriptive information about a system option by specifying the DEFINE option in the PROC OPTIONS statement.
The DEFINE option writes the following descriptive information about a system option to the SAS log:
when in the SAS session it can be set
if it can be restricted by the system administrator
if the OPTSAVE procedure or the DMOPTSAVE command will save the option.
For example, the following statements write a message to the SAS log that contains descriptive information about the system option CENTER:
proc options option=center define; run;
Ouput 8.3: Descriptive Information for the System Option CENTER
This partial SAS log tells you specific information about the system option CENTER.
1 proc options option=center define; 2 run; CENTER Option Definition Information for SAS Option CENTER Group= LISTCONTROL Group Description: Procedure output and display settings Description: Center SAS procedure output Type: The option value is of type BOOLEAN When Can Set: Startup or anytime during the SAS Session Restricted: Your Site Administrator can restrict modification of this option Optsave: Proc Optsave or command Dmoptsave will save this option.
SAS provides default settings for SAS system options. You can override the default settings of any unrestricted system option in several ways. Depending on the function of the system options, you can specify a setting
on the command line or in a configuration file:
You can specify any unrestricted SAS system option setting either on the SAS command line or in a configuration file. If you use the same option settings frequently, then it is usually more
in an OPTIONS statement:
You can specify an OPTIONS statement at any time during a session except within data lines or parmcard lines. Settings
in a SAS System Options window:
If you are in a windowing environment, type
in the toolbox or on the command line to
Operating Environment Information:
Under UNIX, Open VMS, and z/OS operating environments, SAS system options can be restricted by a site administrator so that after they are set by the administrator, they cannot be changed by a user. Depending upon your operating environment, system options can be restricted globally, by group, or by
When you specify a SAS system option setting, the setting applies to the
data one; set items; run; /* option applies to all subsequent steps */ options obs=5; /* printing ends with the fifth observation */ proc print data=one; run; /* the SET statement stops reading after the fifth observation */ data two; set items; run;
To read more than five observations, you must reset the OBS= system option. For more information, see OBS= System Option on page 1571.
If the same system option appears in more than one place, the order of precedence from highest to
OPTIONS statement and SAS System Options window
autoexec file (that contains an OPTIONS statement)
configuration file specification
SAS system default settings.
Operating Environment Information: In some operating environments, you can specify system options in other places. See the SAS documentation for your operating environment.
The following table shows the order of precedence that SAS uses for execution mode options. These options are a subset of the SAS invocation options and are specified on the command line during SAS invocation.
Execution Mode Option
The order of precedence of SAS execution mode options consists of the following rules:
SAS uses the execution mode option with the highest precedence.
If you specify more than one execution mode option of equal precedence, SAS uses only the last option listed.
See the descriptions of the individual options for more details.
Many system options and data set options share the same
In this example, the OBS= system option in the OPTIONS statement specifies that only the first 100 observations will be read from any data set within the SAS job. The OBS= data set option in the SET statement, however, overrrides the system option and specifies that only the first 5 observations will be read from data set TWO. The PROC PRINT step uses the system option setting and reads and prints the first 100 observations from data set THREE:
options obs=100; data one; set two(obs=5); run; proc print data=three; run;