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All standard PC motherboards today come with two EIDE channels, primary and secondary, as evidenced by connectors on the board. Each channel can handle two EIDE devices, one as the master and one as the slave . In this context, the terms master and slave really don't mean much, as everything a master drive can do, a slave drive can do also, although traditionally, the hard drive with the OS/boot files is installed as the primary master. This is not a rule, however. If the BIOS is set to detect any device as a boot device, then any one of the four can have the OS. The only restriction is that each channel cannot have more than one master and one slave drive. EIDE devices that can be connected to the EIDE connectors include hard drives, optical drives (CD and DVD), and Zip drives. Additional EIDE drives can be added to motherboards by using an EIDE expansion card (one manufacturer is Promise Technology, Inc. at promise.com ). To use SCSI devices, a SCSI controller expansion card must be installed.
As we said before, many
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not difficult to remove a hard drive from a desktop or tower computer for testing, virus scanning, data transfer, or disposal. The biggest problems you might run into are accessing the
The first step in removing a hard drive is, with all the cables and power disconnected, to
Figure 6.5: Removing the power and data connectors from an EIDE hard drive.
On the CD
Handle the hard drive with care. It shouldn't be subjected to physical shocks. See the video "Opening Different Types of Cases and Accessing Internal Parts" on the
There are several steps you need to take depending on whether the drive is new or you are reinstalling an existing drive.
The first thing you'll want to do before installing a hard drive is to decide whether you want it to be a primary or secondary, master or slave, based on the other EIDE devices that are or will be installed in the machine. Then, make sure the jumpers are set correctly for master, slave, or cable select. Figure 6.6 shows a
Figure 6.6: This jumper panel is set for master.
is a setting that allows the slave or master condition to be determined by which connector on the ribbon cable the EIDE device is connected to. The cable and motherboard or IDE controller must support cable select in order to use it. Cables that do support cable select have three different colored connectors: black at one end for master, gray in the middle for slave, and blue at the other end for the motherboard (see Figure 6.7). Other cables with three connectors might support cable select. If you have two EIDE devices on one channel (primary or secondary), both or
Figure 6.7: This ribbon cable supports cable select.
You can select whether a drive is primary or secondary by connecting the data cable to the appropriate connector on the motherboard or controller.
When installing the data connector with a ribbon cable, you'll notice that one edge is colored differently from the others. That indicates pin 1. If you don't match up pin 1 on the connector with pin 1 on the drive, the hard drive will not work and might cause damage in some systems. In all full-
Figure 6.8: Finding pin 1.
Of course, it is just as important to connect the ribbon cable correctly to the motherboard, in the event you have removed it. The motherboard will also have a pin indication, as shown in Figure 6.9.
Figure 6.9: An EIDE ribbon cable connected to the connector on the motherboard. Notice the “40” on the
Also notice the
There are two types of EIDE ribbon cables. Make sure that the ribbon cable is rated for the UDMA capacity of the hard drive and motherboard. Although all the connectors at the ends of the cables have 40 pins, cables for UDMA 66 through 133 have 80 conductors (wires). UDMA 33 cables have 40 conductors. The speed is printed on the cable. If the cable says 66, it is good for the higher speeds. If you use a 33 cable with a 66 hard drive or higher on a motherboard that supports the higher speed, the UDMA speed of the hard drive will still be held to 33.
You might see the
Round cables are likely to all be designed to handle UDMA133. The rules for connecting them are basically the same as ribbon cables, but pin 1 is
Make sure to tie off cables neatly. Use plastic wire ties, never rubber bands or twist-ties.
PC cases have a few different locations for hard drive bays. The most common is in a cage that holds drives horizontally at the front of the case. The second most common is the bay that holds drives vertically at the front of the case. The vertical bay is often used in smaller cases, or in larger cases for additional hard drives. If you are placing the drive horizontally, the label side should face up and the controller side should face down, unless it was previously installed and running in the opposite position. Then, connect the power connector.
Sometimes it might be necessary to install a hard drive in a 5.25-inch bay, the type usually used for optical drives (CD and DVD). There are adapters that allow you to do this. See Chapter 7, "CD and DVD Drives," for more information on optical drives and 5.25-inch bays. There may come a time when you want to install a 2.5-inch laptop drive into a regular computer. This requires an adapter for the data connector for a temporary situation, and a full kit for a permanent installation. To find an adapter, search the Internet for "2.5 hard drive to 3.5 adapter." If you can't determine which pin on the notebook hard drive is pin 1,
Figure 6.10: 2.5-inch hard drive connector.
We recommend to always remount a hard drive in the same position (right-side up, upside down, vertical) it was in originally, or it might fail sooner than it would
Unfortunately, there is no standard location where notebook manufacturers put their hard drives. On some machines, you might find that simply removing a single screw on the bottom of the machine and removing the plastic plate gives you full access to the hard drive. Other machines require you to remove the keyboard (see Chapter 9, "Input Devices," for more information). Still others have the hard drive in a slot on a side panel. Unless you have the first type, you will probably have to go to the manufacturer's Web site for service information. Once you find the hard drive, however, replacing it should be easy; the connector is usually polarized (goes in the correct way only). For more information, search the Web for notebook hard drive installation.
Once the drive is in place, there is a series of steps to perform to set up the drive and prepare it for use. The first is to make sure the BIOS recognizes the drive.
As long as it has such a setting, it is best to set the BIOS to Auto, so that it detects the hard drive settings itself. Manually entering these settings might slightly reduce the time it takes for a computer to boot, but it won't be significant enough to make it worthwhile. Some motherboards auto-detect the drive the first time and set the parameters so that they don't have to detect the drives each time. The other option is often called User, meaning that the
Also, look in the BIOS setup program for a S.M.A.R.T. drive setting. This feature
The next step is to partition and format the drive as described earlier in this chapter. In addition to FDISK, there are other setup programs you can use. In fact, just about all hard drive manufacturers offer installation, diagnostic, and other utilities free for download from their Web sites. Ontrack Data Recovery Services ( ontrack.com ) has enhanced versions of some of these utilities for sale. These utilities have many advantages over FDISK and FORMAT, including the capability of formatting partitions as NTFS.
On the CD The Industry Contacts document on the CD-ROM lists hard drive manufacturers. Visit their Web sites and look for downloads for installation, diagnostic, BIOS size limitation, and other utilities.
Early in the Windows 2000/XP installation process, you are prompted to press the F6 key in case you want to install drivers for a special drive controller. You must do this if you want to install the OS on a SCSI or SATA hard drive. This option is available for only a few seconds.
When you set up Windows 2000 or XP from scratch or perform a clean install (installing an OS on a formatted drive, as opposed to running an upgrade), you can boot from an installation floppy or CD and follow the prompts. At a certain point you'll be shown a graph of available partitions and you'll be asked how you want to proceed. You might be able to use existing partitions or delete them and let Setup create new ones for you. You simply answer the prompts concerning the installation partition and file system you want. Then, Setup formats the partition as set. There is no need to pre-format a drive before installing 2000 or XP.
You might come across a function in a BIOS setup program or elsewhere called "low-level formatting." Never do this; it would likely ruin the drive and invalidate the warranty. The point of low-level formatting is to do a complete format and erase everything to eliminate a virus or prepare the drive for a new user. This includes data that the manufacturer wrote onto an otherwise inaccessible portion of the drive. If you need to perform this operation, use the drive manufacturer's utility. In Seagate's case, for example, the procedure is called "Zero Fill" because it
Third-party disk management programs such as Power Quest's PartitionMagic (
) have many features that aren't available in Windows or from any of the utilities that come with new hard drives. You can use PartitionMagic to create, delete, undelete, re-size, hide, merge, or move partitions, as well as change the file system or drive
Once you have installed, formatted, and partitioned the drive, you should be ready to install the OS.
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